2009A&A...503..801F


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.04CEST22:02:44

2009A&A...503..801F - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 503, 801-816 (2009/9-1)

Properties of stellar clusters around high-mass young stars.

FAUSTINI F., MOLINARI S., TESTI L. and BRAND J.

Abstract (from CDS):

Twenty-six high-luminosity IRAS sources believed to be collection of stars in the early phases of high-mass star formation have been observed in the near-IR (J, H, Ks) to characterize the clustering properties of their young stellar population and compare them with those of more evolved objects (e.g., Herbig Ae/Be stars) of comparable mass. All the observed sources possess strong continuum and/or line emission in the millimeter, being therefore associated with gas and dust envelopes. Nine sources have far-IR colors characteristic of UCHII regions, while the other 17 are probably experiencing an evolutionary phase that precedes the hot-cores, as suggested by a variety of evidence collected in the past decade. We attempt to gain insight into the initial conditions of star formation in these clusters (initial mass function [IMF], star formation history [SFH]), and to determine mean cluster ages. For each cluster, we complete aperture photometry. We derive stellar density profiles, color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, and color (HKCF) and luminosity (KLF) functions. These two functions are compared with simulated KLFs and HKCFs from a model that generates populations of synthetic clusters starting from assumptions about the IMF, SFH, and Pre-MS evolution, and using the average properties of the observed clusters as boundary conditions (bolometric luminosity, dust distribution, infrared excess, extinction). Twenty-two sources show evidence of clustering with a stellar richness indicator that varies from a few up to several tens of objects, and a median cluster radius of 0.7pc. A considerable number of cluster members present an infrared excess characteristic of young pre-main-sequence objects. For a subset of 9 detected clusters, we could perform a statistically significant comparison of the observed KLFs with those resulting from synthetic cluster models; for these clusters, we find that the median stellar age ranges between 2.5x105 and 5x106 years, with evidence of an age spread of the same entity within each cluster. We also find evidence that older clusters tend to be smaller in size, in agreement with our clusters being on average larger than those around relatively older Herbig Ae/Be stars. Our models allow us to explore the relationship between the mass of the most massive star in the cluster and both the cluster richness and the total stellar mass. Although these relationships are predicted by several classes of cluster formation models, their detailed analysis suggests that the properties of our modeled clusters may not be consistent with them resulting from random sampling of the IMF. Our results are consistent with star formation having occurred continuously over a period of time longer than the typical crossing time.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: imaging - stars: luminosity function, mass function - stars: pre-main sequence - infrared: stars

Nomenclature: Table 2: [FMT2009] NNNA N=23 among (Nos 3-160).

Simbad objects: 59

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Number of rows : 59

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 IRAS 00420+5530 Y*? 00 44 57.31 +55 47 18.1           ~ 56 0
2 [FMT2009] 3 Cl* 00 44 57.6 +55 46 52           ~ 1 0
3 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3478 0
4 IRAS 05137+3919 Cld 05 17 13.3 +39 22 14           ~ 56 0
5 [FMT2009] 8 Cl* 05 17 13.3 +39 22 14           ~ 1 0
6 [FMT2009] 9 Cl* 05 20 16.2 +36 37 21           ~ 1 0
7 IRAS 05168+3634 mul 05 20 16.2 +36 37 21           ~ 44 0
8 NAME Orion Nebula Cluster OpC 05 35.0 -05 29           ~ 1977 1
9 [FMT2009] 11 Cl* 05 37 47.8 +31 59 24           ~ 1 0
10 NGC 1985 RNe 05 37 47.8 +31 59 24           ~ 130 2
11 NAME GGD 4 IR Cluster Cl* 05 40 24.4 +23 50 54           ~ 3 0
12 CPM 19 Y*O 05 40 24.4 +23 50 54           ~ 48 0
13 RAFGL 6366S HII 06 08 41.0 +21 31 01           ~ 82 0
14 [FMT2009] 15 Cl* 06 08 41.0 +21 31 01           ~ 1 0
15 2MASS J07005094-0856301 Y*O 07 00 50.94 -08 56 30.2           ~ 30 0
16 [FMT2009] 28 Cl* 07 00 51.0 -08 56 29           ~ 1 0
17 [FMT2009] 30 Cl* 17 48 09.3 -27 43 21           ~ 1 0
18 Mol 30 Rad 17 48 09.3 -27 43 21           ~ 6 0
19 IRAS 17450-2742 IR 17 48 10 -27 43.2           ~ 16 0
20 IRAS 18024-2119 IR 18 05 25.4 -21 19 40           ~ 16 0
21 [FMT2009] 38 Cl* 18 06 18.0 -21 42 00           ~ 1 0
22 LBN 008.55-00.88 HII 18 06.4 -21 39           ~ 12 0
23 [FMT2009] 45 Cl* 18 17 24.1 -17 22 12           ~ 2 0
24 IRAS 18144-1723 IR 18 17 24.4 -17 22 13           ~ 32 0
25 AGAL G014.891-00.404 Y*O 18 19 07.4495 -16 11 34.047           ~ 38 0
26 [FMT2009] 50 Cl* 18 19 07.6 -16 11 21           ~ 2 0
27 [FMT2009] 59 Cl* 18 30 35.2 -10 07 12           ~ 1 0
28 JCMTSF J183035.5-100709 Rad 18 30 35.2 -10 07 12           ~ 21 0
29 [FMT2009] 75 Cl* 18 53 38.1 +01 50 27           ~ 2 0
30 MSX6C G034.8211+00.3519 Y*O 18 53 38.2500 +01 50 24.001           ~ 50 0
31 [FMT2009] 82 Cl* 18 59 03.2 +03 53 17           ~ 2 0
32 IRAS 18565+0349 Rad 18 59 03.4 +03 53 22           ~ 14 0
33 SH 2-75 HII 18 59 13.6 +07 04 47   13.60 12.74     ~ 29 0
34 [FMT2009] 84 Cl* 18 59 14.3 +07 04 52           ~ 2 0
35 [FMT2009] 98 Cl* 19 11 37.40 +08 46 30.0           ~ 1 0
36 IRAS 19092+0841 Rad 19 11 37.4 +08 46 30           ~ 28 0
37 [FMT2009] 99 Cl* 19 11 51.4 +09 49 35           ~ 2 0
38 IRAS 19094+0944 mul 19 11 52.0 +09 49 46           ~ 17 0
39 [FMT2009] 103 Cl* 19 23 36.2 +17 28 58           ~ 2 0
40 2MASS J19233684+1728589 Y*O 19 23 36.8147735002 +17 28 58.930908203           ~ 46 0
41 Mol 103 Rad 19 23 37.0 +17 28 59           ~ 9 0
42 Mol 109 Rad 19 39 33.2 +23 59 55           ~ 7 0
43 MSX6C G059.6032+00.9116 HII 19 39 34.8 +23 59 51           ~ 21 0
44 [FMT2009] 109 Cl* 19 39 35.0 +24 00 05           ~ 2 0
45 [FMT2009] 110 Cl* 19 40 58.5 +24 04 36           ~ 2 0
46 AGAL G059.832+00.672 Y*O 19 40 59.1 +24 04 46           ~ 27 0
47 Mol 110 Rad 19 40 59.4 +24 04 39           ~ 9 0
48 IRAS 21307+5049 Y*O 21 32 30.59280 +51 02 16.0368           ~ 37 0
49 [FMT2009] 136 Cl* 21 32 31.50 +51 02 22.0           ~ 1 0
50 [FMT2009] 139 Cl* 21 53 38.80 +56 27 53.0           ~ 1 0
51 IRAS 21519+5613 HII 21 53 38.8 +56 27 53           ~ 37 0
52 LBN 102.79-00.92 HII 22 19 09.0 +56 04 45           ~ 99 0
53 [FMT2009] 143 Cl* 22 19 09.00 +56 04 45.0           ~ 1 0
54 IRAS 22305+5803 HII 22 32 23.972 +58 18 57.91           ~ 31 0
55 [FMT2009] 148 Cl* 22 32 24.30 +58 18 58.2           ~ 1 0
56 IRAS 22506+5944 Y*O 22 52 38.09760 +60 01 01.1928           ~ 55 0
57 [FMT2009] 151 Cl* 22 52 38.60 +60 00 56.0           ~ 1 0
58 [FMT2009] 160 Cl* 23 40 53.30 +61 10 19.1           ~ 1 0
59 Mol 160 Rad 23 40 54.5 +61 10 28           ~ 88 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.04-22:02:44

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