2009A&A...507..861J


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.10CET08:22:36

2009A&A...507..861J - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 507, 861-879 (2009/11-4)

PROSAC: a submillimeter array survey of low-mass protostars. II. The mass evolution of envelopes, disks, and stars from the class 0 through I stages.

JORGENSEN J.K., VAN DISHOECK E.F., VISSER R., BOURKE T.L., WILNER D.J., LOMMEN D., HOGERHEIJDE M.R. and MYERS P.C.

Abstract (from CDS):

The key question about early protostellar evolution is how matter is accreted from the large-scale molecular cloud, through the circumstellar disk onto the central star. We constrain the masses of the envelopes, disks, and central stars of a sample of low-mass protostars and compare the results to theoretical models for the evolution of young stellar objects through the early protostellar stages. A sample of 20 Class 0 and I protostars has been observed in continuum at (sub)millimeter wavelengths at high angular resolution (typically 2") with the submillimeter array. Using detailed dust radiative transfer models of the interferometric data, as well as single-dish continuum observations, we have developed a framework for disentangling the continuum emission from the envelopes and disks, and from that estimated their masses. For the Class I sources in the sample HCO+ 3-2 line emission was furthermore observed with the submillimeter array. Four of these sources show signs of Keplerian rotation, making it possible to determine the masses of the central stars. In the other sources the disks are masked by optically thick envelope and outflow emission. Both Class 0 and I protostars are surrounded by disks with typical masses of about 0.05M, although significant scatter is seen in the derived disk masses for objects within both evolutionary stages. No evidence is found for a correlation between the disk mass and evolutionary stage of the young stellar objects. This contrasts the envelope mass, which decreases sharply from ∼1M in the Class 0 stage to ≲0.1M in the Class I stage. Typically, the disks have masses that are 1-10% of the corresponding envelope masses in the Class 0 stage and 20-60% in the Class I stage. For the Class I sources for which Keplerian rotation is seen, the central stars contain 70-98% of the total mass in the star-disk-envelope system, confirming that these objects are late in their evolution through the embedded protostellar stages, with most of the material from the ambient envelope accreted onto the central star. Theoretical models tend to overestimate the disk masses relative to the stellar masses in the late Class I stage. The results argue in favor of a picture in which circumstellar disks are formed early during the protostellar evolution (although these disks are not necessarily rotationally supported) and rapidly process material accreted from the larger scale envelope onto the central star.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: circumstellar matter - stars: planetary systems: protoplanetary disks - radiative transfer

Simbad objects: 44

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Number of rows : 44

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 LDN 1448 DNe 03 22.5 +30 35           ~ 459 0
2 NAME LDN 1448-mm Y*O 03 25 38.83 +30 44 06.2           ~ 294 0
3 [SDA2014] West4 Y*O 03 25 38.83 +30 44 06.2           ~ 241 1
4 NGC 1333 SFR 03 28 55 +31 22.2   10.9       ~ 1186 1
5 [JCC87] IRAS 2A Y*O 03 28 55.55 +31 14 36.7           ~ 374 3
6 BD+30 547 Y*O 03 28 57.2107612240 +31 14 19.076624755   10.73 9.98 9.1   G4V 91 1
7 [JCC87] IRAS 4A2 Y*O 03 29 10.413 +31 13 32.20           ~ 73 1
8 [JCC87] IRAS 4A Y*O 03 29 10.49 +31 13 30.8           ~ 571 1
9 [JCC87] IRAS 4A1 Y*O 03 29 10.510 +31 13 31.01           ~ 64 1
10 [JCC87] IRAS 4 FIR 03 29 10.9 +31 13 26           ~ 462 0
11 [JCC87] IRAS 4B Y*O 03 29 12.058 +31 13 02.05           ~ 545 0
12 NAME IRAS 4B1 South Y*O 03 29 12.06 +31 13 01.7           ~ 24 1
13 NAME IRAS 4B1 North Y*O 03 29 12.06 +31 13 05.4           ~ 10 0
14 NAME Per Region reg 03 37 00.0 +31 15 00           ~ 223 0
15 IRAS 04016+2610 Y*O 04 04 43.071 +26 18 56.39     20.45     ~ 229 0
16 3C 111 Sy1 04 18 21.2773655604 +38 01 35.801523843   19.75 18.05     ~ 841 1
17 HBC 393 FU* 04 31 34.077 +18 08 04.90           K3V/M3III 775 2
18 TMR 1B IR 04 39 13.89 +25 53 20.4           ~ 8 0
19 IRAS 04361+2547 Y*O 04 39 13.898 +25 53 20.63           ~ 183 1
20 TMR 1C Pl? 04 39 13.898 +25 53 20.63           ~ 24 1
21 TMR 1A IR 04 39 13.90 +25 53 20.6           ~ 8 0
22 IRAS 04365+2535 Y*O 04 39 35.194 +25 41 44.73           ~ 227 0
23 LDN 1527 DNe 04 39 53 +25 45.0           ~ 472 0
24 NAME Taurus Dark Cloud SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3335 0
25 QSO J0530+13 QSO 05 30 56.41672 +13 31 55.1495     20.0 19.35   ~ 873 1
26 QSO B1514-24 BLL 15 17 41.8135246339 -24 22 19.482167214   15.13 14.00 13.95   ~ 625 3
27 QSO B1622-297 QSO 16 26 06.02083867 -29 51 26.9710860   18.41 20.5 17.6   ~ 354 0
28 GSS 30 Y*O 16 26 21.38160 -24 23 04.0524           ~ 194 1
29 [JJK2008] SMM J162622-24225 smm 16 26 21.60 -24 22 54.8           ~ 40 0
30 [CHG85] GSS 30 IRS 3 Y*O 16 26 21.77376 -24 22 51.3948           ~ 53 0
31 VSSG 12 Y*O 16 26 22.38552 -24 22 52.9464           ~ 49 0
32 VSSG 30 Y*O 16 26 44.19504 -24 34 48.3492           ~ 124 0
33 Elia 2-29 Y*O 16 27 09.43032 -24 37 18.7716           ~ 261 1
34 JCMTSF J162726.6-244050 Rad 16 27 26.913 -24 40 50.14           ~ 14 0
35 [GRC2000] VLA 2 Rad 16 27 26.936 -24 40 50.63           ~ 12 0
36 YLW 15 Y*O 16 27 26.93640 -24 40 50.8224           ~ 233 1
37 YLW 16A Y*O 16 27 28.02744 -24 39 33.5052           K8 181 0
38 YLW 52 Y*O 16 27 51.80472 -24 31 45.5304           ~ 60 0
39 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 2944 0
40 IRAS 16285-2355 Y*O 16 31 35.65752 -24 01 29.4708           ~ 101 0
41 LDN 483 DNe 18 17 35 -04 39.8           ~ 197 0
42 LDN 723 DNe 19 18 12 +19 13.6           ~ 153 0
43 LDN 663 DNe 19 36 55 +07 34.4           ~ 539 0
44 LDN 1157 DNe 20 39 06.4 +68 02 13           ~ 463 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.12.10-08:22:36

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