2009A&A...507.1409K


Query : 2009A&A...507.1409K

2009A&A...507.1409K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 507, 1409-1423 (2009/12-1)

The evolution of the stellar mass function in star clusters.

KRUIJSSEN J.M.D.

Abstract (from CDS):

The dynamical escape of stars from star clusters affects the shape of the stellar mass function (MF) in these clusters, because the escape probability of a star depends on its mass. This is found in N-body simulations and has been approximated in analytical cluster models by fitting the evolution of the MF. Both approaches are naturally restricted to the set of boundary conditions for which the simulations were performed. The objective of this paper is to provide and to apply a simple physical model for the evolution of the MF in star clusters for a large range of the parameter space. It should also offer a new perspective on the results from N-body simulations. A simple, physically self-contained model for the evolution of the stellar MF in star clusters is derived from the basic principles of two-body encounters and energy considerations. It is independent of the adopted mass loss rate or initial mass function (IMF), and contains stellar evolution, stellar remnant retention, dynamical dissolution in a tidal field, and mass segregation. The MF evolution in star clusters depends on the disruption time, remnant retention fraction, initial-final stellar mass relation, and IMF. Low-mass stars are preferentially ejected after t∼400Myr. Before that time, masses around 15-20% of the maximum stellar mass are lost due to their rapid two-body relaxation with the massive stars that still exist at young ages. The degree of low-mass star depletion grows for increasing disruption times, but can be quenched when the retained fraction of massive remnants is large. The highly depleted MFs of certain Galactic globular clusters are explained by the enhanced low-mass star depletion that occurs for low remnant retention fractions. Unless the retention fraction is exceptionally large, dynamical evolution always decreases the mass-to-light ratio. The retention of black holes reduces the fraction of the cluster mass in remnants because white dwarfs and neutron stars have masses that are efficiently ejected by black holes. The modeled evolution of the MF is consistent with N-body simulations when adopting identical boundary conditions. However, it is found that the results from N-body simulations only hold for their specific boundary conditions and should not be generalised to all clusters. It is concluded that the model provides an efficient method to understand the evolution of the stellar MF in star clusters under widely varying conditions.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stellar dynamics - stars: kinematics - Galaxy: globular clusters: general - galaxies: star clusters - Galaxy: open clusters and associations: general - galaxies: stellar content

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/507/1409): models.dat models/*>

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 11788 1

Query : 2009A&A...507.1409K

Basic data :
M 31 -- Galaxy
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
LIN (), G (2006AJ,LEDA,...), * (AG,BD,...), QSO (2010A&A,[VV2006],...), AGN ([VV2000c],[VV2003c],...), Rad (2C,DA,...), IR (IRAS,IRC,...), gam (2FGL,3FGL,...), X (2MAXI,XSS), GiC (GIN), GiG (K79)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 (Infrared) [ ] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
00 40 00.095 +40 59 41.73 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
121.174329 -21.573309 [ ]
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) -300.0 [4.0] / z(spectroscopic) -0.001000 [0.000013] / cz -299.85 [4.00]
   C 2012AJ....144....4M
Syntax of parallax is : 'value quality [error] bibcode'
  • value : parallax value
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • [error] : mean error
  • bibcode : bibcode of the parallax reference
Parallaxes (mas):
6.0 [14.1] E 1995GCTP..C......0V
Syntax of morphological type is : mtype quality bibcode
  • mtype : Hubble morphological class (spirals, ellipticals, etc)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the morphological type reference
Morphological type:
SA(s)b D 2013AJ....146...67B
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
199.53 70.79 35 (Opt) D 2003A&A...412...45P
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (6) :
U 4.86 [0.03] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
B 4.36 [0.02] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
V 3.44 [0.03] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
J 2.094 [0.016] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
H 1.283 [0.017] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
K 0.984 [0.017] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
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Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations.
notes:


Hierarchy : number of linked objects
whatever the membership probability is (see description here ) :

: 3
The count displayed here is the number of children objects.
The list obtained by clicking the button may be larger, as some children may be linked with different references or probability.

%This number is the number of distinct objets linked, by using this button, you will obtain all links (may be more than one) from that object to his children

: 11837
: 102 Display criteria :

The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (39) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

M 31 IRAS F00400+4059 NAME And Nebula Z 535-17
AG+40 60 IRAS 00400+4059 NAME Andromeda Nebula Z 0040.0+4100
BD+40 148 IRC +40013 NGC 224 [DGW65] 4
2C 56 K79 1C PLX 124.00 [M98c] 004000.1+405943
DA 21 LEDA 2557 PLX 124 [VV2000c] J004244.3+411610
2FGL J0042.5+4114 2MASX J00424433+4116074 PPM 43228 [VV2003c] J004244.3+411610
3FGL J0042.5+4117 2MAXI J0043+412 RAFGL 104 [VV2006] J004244.3+411610
4FGL J0043.2+4114 MCG+07-02-016 UGC 454 [VV2010] J004244.3+411610
GIN 801 NAME Andromeda UZC J004244.3+411608 [VV98c] J004245.1+411622
HD 3969 NAME Andromeda Galaxy XSS J00425+4102

References (11788 between 1850 and 2022) (Total 11788)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Collections of Measurements


velocities : 9    distance : 11    PLX : 1    PM : 1   

   

Observing logs


herschel : 21    ISO : 156    IUE : 15    XMM : 22   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : M 31

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

AG+40 60 BD+40 148 HD 3969 IRAS F00400+4059 IRAS 00400+4059
IRC +40013 2MASX J00424433+4116074 NGC 224 PLX 124 PPM 43228
RAFGL 104 UGC 454

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2022.05.20-00:35:15

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