2009A&A...508..259V


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.20CET09:14:20

2009A&A...508..259V - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 508, 259-274 (2009/12-2)

Dense and warm molecular gas in the envelopes and outflows of southern low-mass protostars.

VAN KEMPEN T.A., VAN DISHOECK E.F., HOGERHEIJDE M.R. and GUESTEN R.

Abstract (from CDS):

Observations of dense molecular gas lie at the basis of our understanding of the density and temperature structure of protostellar envelopes and molecular outflows. The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) opens up the study of southern (Dec←35°) protostars. We aim to characterize the properties of the protostellar envelope, molecular outflow and surrounding cloud, through observations of high excitation molecular lines within a sample of 16 southern sources presumed to be embedded YSOs, including the most luminous Class I objects in Corona Australis and Chamaeleon. Observations of submillimeter lines of CO, HCO+ and their isotopologues, both single spectra and small maps (up to 80''x80''), were taken with the FLASH and APEX-2a instruments mounted on APEX to trace the gas around the sources. The HARP-B instrument on the JCMT was used to map IRAS 15398-3359 in these lines. HCO+ mapping probes the presence of dense centrally condensed gas, a characteristic of protostellar envelopes. The rare isotopologues C18O and H13CO+ are also included to determine the optical depth, column density, and source velocity. The combination of multiple CO transitions, such as 3-2, 4-3 and 7-6, allows to constrain outflow properties, in particular the temperature. Archival submillimeter continuum data are used to determine envelope masses. Eleven of the sixteen sources have associated warm and/or dense (≥106cm–3) quiescent gas characteristic of protostellar envelopes, or an associated outflow. Using the strength and degree of concentration of the HCO+ 4-3 and CO 4-3 lines as a diagnostic, five sources classified as Class I based on their spectral energy distributions are found not to be embedded YSOs. The C18O 3-2 lines show that for none of the sources, foreground cloud layers are present. Strong molecular outflows are found around six sources, with outflow forces an order of magnitude higher than for previously studied Class I sources of similar luminosity. This study provides a starting point for future ALMA and Herschel surveys by identifying truly embedded southern YSOs and determining their larger scale envelope and outflow characteristics.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): astrochemistry - stars: formation - submillimeter - ISM: jets and outflows - ISM: molecules

Simbad objects: 40

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Number of rows : 40

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 Bol 228 GlC 00 44 33.22 +41 41 27.9 18.26 17.730 16.79 16.220 15.66 ~ 39 0
2 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1010 0
3 NAME Taurus Dark Cloud SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3323 0
4 CG 1 CGb 07 19 21.5 -44 35 03           ~ 38 1
5 IRAS 07178-4429 mul 07 19 25.8 -44 35 01           ~ 17 0
6 2MASS J08254384-5100326 Y*O 08 25 43.85 -51 00 32.7           ~ 295 1
7 NAME ESO 210- 6A MoC 08 25 44 -51 02.1           ~ 40 1
8 IRAS 11051-7706 Y*O 11 06 46.025 -77 22 29.67           ~ 70 0
9 [PMG2001] NIR 76 Y*? 11 06 46.580 -77 22 32.56           ~ 55 0
10 NAME Cha I MoC 11 06 48 -77 18.0           ~ 940 1
11 IRAS 11057-7706 Y*O 11 07 09.199 -77 23 04.99           ~ 58 0
12 [PCW91] Ced 110 IRS 6A IR 11 07 09.91 -77 23 06.3           ~ 6 0
13 V* HP Cha Y*O 11 08 15.099 -77 33 53.16     13.3     K7V 96 0
14 PDS 47a Y*O 11 08 15.71 -77 33 53.1           K3.5 80 1
15 NAME Cha IR Nebula TT* 11 08 38.702 -77 43 51.54           M5.5 72 0
16 OTS 18 IR 11 09 36.6 -76 33 39           ~ 8 0
17 V* WX Cha Or* 11 09 58.738 -77 37 08.88   16.44 13.70   12.20 M1+M5 88 0
18 NAME Cha Dark Cloud SFR 11 55 -78.0           ~ 528 1
19 V* DK Cha Or* 12 53 17.2028372976 -77 07 10.727661977           F0 131 0
20 NAME Cha II MoC 12 54 -77.2           ~ 295 0
21 HH 54 HH 12 55 49.5 -76 56 08           ~ 118 0
22 CG 12 CGb 13 57 42.2 -39 56 21           ~ 47 1
23 Barnard 228 cor 15 43 00.9 -34 08 48           ~ 64 0
24 IRAS 15398-3359 Y*? 15 43 02.21016 -34 09 07.7112       18.38 21.72 ~ 125 0
25 NAME Lup Cloud SFR 16 03 -38.1           ~ 482 0
26 YLW 16B Y*O 16 27 29.43528 -24 39 16.1892           ~ 97 0
27 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 2938 0
28 LDN 483 DNe 18 17 35 -04 39.8           ~ 196 0
29 [TS84] IRS 2 Y*O 19 01 41.569 -36 58 31.23           K2 78 0
30 2MASS J19014805-3657219 Y*O 19 01 48.056 -36 57 21.95           ~ 93 0
31 HH 100 HH 19 01 49.1 -36 58 16           ~ 79 0
32 V* V710 CrA Or* 19 01 50.67792 -36 58 09.6132           K7: 114 0
33 NAME CrA Dark Cloud MoC 19 01 51 -36 58.9           ~ 384 0
34 NAME Coronet Cluster Cl* 19 01 54 -36 57.2           ~ 78 1
35 [NWA2005] SMM 1C mm 19 01 55.28 -36 57 16.6           ~ 23 1
36 2MASS J19015545-3657231 Y*O 19 01 55.460 -36 57 23.13           ~ 89 2
37 [NWA2005] SMM 1B Y*O 19 01 56.41 -36 57 28.0           ~ 77 1
38 [WMB97] 185844.9-365748 * 19 02 07.5 -36 53 13           ~ 8 0
39 IRAS 18595-3712 Y*O 19 02 58.706 -37 07 34.67           ~ 42 0
40 NAME CrA Complex reg 19 15 00.0 -37 30 00           ~ 101 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.11.20-09:14:20

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