2010A&A...515A..19K


Query : 2010A&A...515A..19K

2010A&A...515A..19K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 515, A19-19 (2010/6-1)

A lower-limit flux for the extragalactic background light.

KNEISKE T.M. and DOLE H.

Abstract (from CDS):

The extragalactic background light (EBL) contains information about the evolution of galaxies from very early times up to the present. The spectral energy distribution is not known accurately, especially in the near- and mid-infrared range. Upper limits and absolute measurements come from direct observations which might be be polluted by foreground emission, while indirect upper limits can also be set by observations of high energy gamma-ray sources. Galaxy number counts integrations of observable galaxies, missing possible faint sources, give strict lower limits. A model is constructed, which reproduces the EBL lower limit flux. This model can be used for a guaranteed minimum correction of observed spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources for extragalactic absorption. A forward evolution model for the metagalactic radiation field is used to fit recent observations of satelites like Spitzer, ISO, Hubble and GALEX. The model is applied to calculate the Fazio-Stecker relation, and to compute the absorption factor at different redshifts and corrected blazar spectra. A strict lower-limit flux for the evolving extragalactic background light (and in particular the cosmic infrared background) has been calculated up to a redshift of five. The computed flux is below the existing upper limits from direct observations, and agrees with all existing limits derived from very-high energy gamma-ray observations. The corrected spectra still agree with simple theoretical predictions. The derived strict lower-limit EBL flux is very close to the upper limits from gamma-ray observations. This is true for the present day EBL, but also for the diffuse flux at higher redshift. If future detections of high redshift gamma-ray sources require a lower EBL flux than derived here, the physics assumptions used to derive the upper limits have to be revised. The lower-limit EBL model is not only needed for absorption features in active galactic nuclei and other gamma-ray sources, but is also essential when alternative particle processes are tested, which could prevent the high energy gamma-rays from being absorbed. It can also be used for a guaranteed interaction of cosmic-ray particles. The model is available online.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): diffuse radiation - Galaxy: formation - infrared: galaxies

Simbad objects: 18

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Number of rows : 18
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 LEDA 174300 BLL 01 52 39.6109440384 +01 47 17.385104112     15.12 11.8   ~ 120 1
2 QSO B0229+200 BLL 02 32 48.6148874688 +20 17 17.486717388   18.0 18.00     ~ 290 3
3 QSO B0347-121 BLL 03 49 23.1862105584 -11 59 27.366035532   18.74 18.2 17.46   ~ 204 0
4 6C 101157+494057 BLL 10 15 04.1396533776 +49 26 00.706055496   16.56 16.15 14.58   ~ 332 2
5 QSO J1103-2329 BLL 11 03 37.6150845072 -23 29 31.203773520   17.00 16.55 16.61   ~ 348 2
6 Mrk 421 BLL 11 04 27.3140835504 +38 12 31.798495872   13.50 12.90 8.31   ~ 2540 1
7 6C 113337+702604 BLL 11 36 26.4090783600 +70 09 27.309071232   15.16 14.49 10.51   ~ 340 1
8 QSO B1218+304 BLL 12 21 21.9426947832 +30 10 37.158534012   16.50 15.85 15.7   ~ 432 1
9 7C 1219+2830 BLL 12 21 31.6904439888 +28 13 58.500308172   16.81 16.11 14.24   ~ 819 1
10 3C 279 Bla 12 56 11.1663795384 -05 47 21.528432492   18.01 17.75 15.87   ~ 2898 2
11 QSO B1426+428 BLL 14 28 32.6090008440 +42 40 21.048123396   16.95 16.45 14.4   ~ 483 2
12 4C 39.49 BLL 16 53 52.2160772976 +39 45 36.613228860 14.09 14.15 13.29 8.26   ~ 2037 2
13 QSO B1959+650 BLL 19 59 59.8520303688 +65 08 54.652536492     12.8 11.21   ~ 558 2
14 QSO B2005-489 BLL 20 09 25.3903899240 -48 49 53.725051056   15.75 12.81 11.41   ~ 541 2
15 QSO B2155-304 BLL 21 58 52.0652249880 -30 13 32.118447792   13.36 13.09 12.62   ~ 1658 1
16 NAME BL Lac BLL 22 02 43.2913536816 +42 16 39.979416792   15.66 14.72     ~ 2143 1
17 QSO B2344+514 BLL 23 47 04.8372110928 +51 42 17.877513168     15.50 10.7   ~ 416 0
18 QSO B2356-309 BLL 23 59 07.9034996184 -30 37 40.671098544   18.414 16.44 16.795   ~ 275 1

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2022.10.02-01:10:35

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