2010A&A...516A..55C


Query : 2010A&A...516A..55C

2010A&A...516A..55C - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 516, A55-55 (2010/6-2)

Properties of stellar generations in globular clusters and relations with global parameters.

CARRETTA E., BRAGAGLIA A., GRATTON R.G., RECIO-BLANCO A., LUCATELLO S., D'ORAZI V. and CASSISI S.

Abstract (from CDS):

We revise the scenario of the formation of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) by adding the observed detailed chemical composition of their different stellar generations to the set of their global parameters. We exploit the unprecedented set of homogeneous abundances of more than 1200 red giants in 19 clusters, as well as additional data from literature, to give a new definition of bona fide GCs, as the stellar aggregates showing the Na-O anticorrelation. We propose a classification of GCs according to their kinematics and location in the Galaxy in three populations: disk/bulge, inner halo, and outer halo. We find that the luminosity function of GCs is fairly independent of their population, suggesting that it is imprinted by the formation mechanism only marginally affected by the ensuing evolution. We show that a large fraction of the primordial population should have been lost by the proto-GCs. The extremely low Al abundances found for the primordial population of massive GCs indicate a very fast enrichment process before the formation of the primordial population. We suggest a scenario for the formation of GCs that includes at least three main phases: i) the formation of a precursor population (likely due to the interaction of cosmological structures similar to those that led to the formation of dwarf spheroidals, but residing at smaller Galactocentric distances, with the early Galaxy or with other structures); ii) the triggering of a long episode of star formation (the primordial population) from the precursor population; and iii) the formation of the current GC, mainly within a cooling flow formed by the slow winds of a fraction of the primordial population. The precursor population is very effective in raising the metal content in massive and/or metal-poor (mainly halo) clusters, while its role is minor in small and/or metal-rich (mainly disk) ones. Finally, we use principal component analysis and multivariate relations to study the phase of metal enrichment from first to second generation. We conclude that most of the chemical signatures of GCs may be ascribed to a few parameters, the most important being metallicity, mass, and cluster age. Location within the Galaxy (as described by the kinematics) also plays some role, while additional parameters are required to describe their dynamical status.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: abundances - stars: atmospheres - stars: Population II - globular clusters: general

Simbad objects: 198

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Number of rows : 198
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 Cl Lindsay 1 Cl* 00 03 54 -73 28.3   11.7       ~ 112 0
2 NGC 104 GlC 00 24 05.359 -72 04 53.20   5.78 4.09     ~ 3781 0
3 ESO 28-19 Cl* 00 24 47 -72 47.7   11.6 12.05     ~ 142 0
4 NGC 121 GlC 00 26 49.0 -71 32 10   11.2 11.24     ~ 299 0
5 NGC 188 OpC 00 47 12 +85 14.6           ~ 885 0
6 ESO 51-3 Cl* 00 48 50 -69 52.2   16.2       ~ 47 0
7 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 10530 1
8 NGC 288 GlC 00 52 45.24 -26 34 57.4   10 8.13     ~ 1001 0
9 NGC 339 OpC 00 57 48.90 -74 28 00.2 13.23 12.94 12.21   11.20 ~ 135 0
10 NGC 361 OpC 01 02 12.83 -71 36 16.2 12.86 12.43 11.77   10.70 ~ 99 0
11 NGC 362 GlC 01 03 14.26 -70 50 55.6     6.58     ~ 1031 0
12 NGC 416 Cl* 01 07 59.0 -72 21 20 12.73 12.55 11.76   10.71 ~ 140 1
13 Cl Lindsay 113 Cl* 01 49 30.0 -73 43 40   11.9       ~ 85 0
14 NAME Fornax H1 Cl* 02 37 02.1 -34 11 00     16.59     ~ 102 0
15 NAME Fornax H2 GlC 02 38 44.24 -34 48 30.5   14.5       ~ 90 0
16 NAME Fornax H3 GlC 02 39 48.16 -34 15 28.6   13.59       ~ 120 0
17 NAME Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal G 02 39 59.3 -34 26 57   9.02 7.4     ~ 1660 1
18 NAME Fornax H4 GlC 02 40 07.697 -34 32 10.59   15.18 13.91 14.08   ~ 107 0
19 NAME Fornax H5 GlC 02 42 21.111 -34 06 05.80   14.5       ~ 97 0
20 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 6555 1
21 NGC 1193 OpC 03 05 57 +44 23.0     12.6     ~ 82 0
22 NAME Magellanic Bridge HI 03 11 -77.5           ~ 405 1
23 NGC 1261 GlC 03 12 16.21 -55 12 58.4     8.63     ~ 488 0
24 BD+66 268 PM* 03 31 17.4003449284 +66 43 49.024902152 10.48 10.57 9.91 9.30 8.87 G0 164 0
25 Cl Pal 1 GlC 03 33 20.04 +79 34 51.8   17.2       ~ 228 1
26 NAME Eridanus ClG GrG 03 38 32.00 -22 18 51.0           ~ 161 0
27 NGC 1466 GlC 03 44 33 -71 40.3   11.6 11.59     ~ 161 0
28 NAME E 1 GlC 03 55 02.5 -49 36 52           ~ 195 0
29 NAME Ret GlC 04 36 10.15 -58 51 34.8   14.00 14.25 13.50   ~ 155 1
30 NGC 1841 GlC 04 45 23 -83 59.8   12.23 11.43     ~ 179 0
31 Cl Pal 2 GlC 04 46 05.91 +31 22 53.4   15       ~ 166 0
32 NGC 1754 Cl* 04 54 18.080 -70 26 32.58   12.32 11.57     ~ 93 0
33 NGC 1786 Cl* 04 59 07.470 -67 44 45.44   10.1       ~ 142 0
34 NGC 1835 Cl* 05 05 09.210 -69 24 20.96   11.314 10.596     ~ 164 0
35 NGC 1851 GlC 05 14 06.76 -40 02 47.6           ~ 1361 0
36 NGC 1898 As* 05 16 45.380 -69 39 16.76   12.62 11.86     ~ 96 0
37 NGC 1916 Cl* 05 18 37.87 -69 24 22.9   11.16 10.38     ~ 87 0
38 NGC 1928 Cl* 05 20 55.940 -69 28 34.96   13.34 12.47     ~ 66 0
39 NGC 1939 Cl* 05 21 26.82 -69 56 59.0   12.52 11.83     ~ 59 0
40 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16507 1
41 M 79 GlC 05 24 10.59 -24 31 27.3     8.16     ~ 780 0
42 NGC 2005 Cl* 05 30 08.500 -69 45 14.42   12.30 11.57     ~ 91 0
43 NGC 2019 Cl* 05 31 56.48 -70 09 32.5   10.9 10.86     ~ 121 0
44 ESO 121-3 Cl* 06 02 03.32 -60 31 25.6   14.91 14.04     ~ 111 0
45 NGC 2210 GlC 06 11 31.296 -69 07 17.04   10.9 10.94     ~ 181 0
46 NAME Hodge 11 GlC 06 14 22.92 -69 50 54.9   12.57 11.93     ~ 107 0
47 NGC 2257 Cl* 06 30 12 -64 19.6   13.24 12.62     ~ 211 0
48 NGC 2298 GlC 06 48 59.41 -36 00 19.1     8.89     ~ 473 0
49 Cl Berkeley 31 OpC 06 57 37 +08 17.1           ~ 121 0
50 NGC 2403 AGN 07 36 51.3381434280 +65 36 09.650825640 9.31 8.84 8.38 8.19   ~ 1721 1
51 NGC 2419 GlC 07 38 08.51 +38 52 54.9     10.05     ~ 896 0
52 BD-01 1792 PM* 07 39 50.1120068643 -01 31 20.376529550 10.35 10.05 9.23     G6V 100 0
53 Cl Berkeley 39 OpC 07 46 48 -04 39.9           ~ 178 1
54 HD 74000 PM* 08 40 50.8036114756 -16 20 42.516208237 9.84 10.09 9.66     F2 259 0
55 NAME PYX GLOBULAR CL GlC 09 07 57.80 -37 13 17.0           ~ 95 0
56 NGC 2808 GlC 09 12 03.10 -64 51 48.6           ~ 1364 0
57 NAME E 3 GlC 09 20 57.07 -77 16 54.8           ~ 153 0
58 NAME Sextans C GlC 10 05 30.96 +00 04 15.4   15.5 13.9     ~ 314 1
59 NGC 3201 GlC 10 17 36.82 -46 24 44.9           ~ 818 0
60 GCl 17 GlC 11 29 16.80 +28 58 25.0   14.4       ~ 337 1
61 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1643 0
62 NGC 4147 GlC 12 10 06.149 +18 32 31.78   11.45 10.74     ~ 549 0
63 NGC 4372 GlC 12 25 45.43 -72 39 32.7   10.86 9.85     ~ 288 0
64 Cl Collinder 261 OpC 12 38 05 -68 22.6     10.7     ~ 182 0
65 C 1235-509 GlC 12 38 40.20 -51 09 01.0           ~ 352 0
66 M 68 GlC 12 39 27.98 -26 44 38.6     7.96     ~ 952 0
67 NGC 4833 GlC 12 59 33.92 -70 52 35.4           ~ 396 0
68 M 53 GlC 13 12 55.25 +18 10 05.4     7.79     ~ 794 0
69 NGC 5053 GlC 13 16 27.09 +17 42 00.9     9.96     ~ 594 0
70 NGC 5139 GlC 13 26 47.28 -47 28 46.1           ~ 3299 0
71 M 3 GlC 13 42 11.62 +28 22 38.2     6.39     ~ 2406 0
72 NGC 5286 GlC 13 46 26.81 -51 22 27.3           ~ 412 0
73 C 1353-269 GlC 13 56 21.702 -27 10 03.00           ~ 121 0
74 NGC 5466 GlC 14 05 27.29 +28 32 04.0     9.70     ~ 801 0
75 NGC 5634 GlC 14 29 37.28 -05 58 35.1   10.69 10.05     ~ 284 0
76 NGC 5694 GlC 14 39 36.52 -26 32 18.0           ~ 288 0
77 IC 4499 GlC 15 00 18.57 -82 12 49.6     8.56     ~ 332 0
78 NGC 5824 GlC 15 03 58.612 -33 04 06.70   10.28 9.56     ~ 387 0
79 NAME Serpens Dwarf GlC 15 16 05.30 -00 06 41.0   15.1       ~ 701 1
80 NGC 5897 GlC 15 17 24.40 -21 00 36.4   10.16 8.52     ~ 370 0
81 M 5 GlC 15 18 33.22 +02 04 51.7     5.95     ~ 1906 0
82 NGC 5927 GlC 15 28 00.69 -50 40 22.9           ~ 438 0
83 NGC 5946 GlC 15 35 28.58 -50 39 35.0           ~ 181 0
84 ESO 224-8 OpC 15 39 05.4 -50 03 02           ~ 62 0
85 NGC 5986 GlC 15 46 03.00 -37 47 11.1     6.92     ~ 347 0
86 GCl 38 GlC 16 10 59.00 +14 57 42.0           ~ 351 0
87 Cl Lynga 7 OpC 16 11 03.65 -55 19 04.0           ~ 104 0
88 M 80 GlC 16 17 02.41 -22 58 33.9           ~ 683 0
89 M 4 GlC 16 23 35.22 -26 31 32.7           ~ 1784 0
90 NGC 6101 GlC 16 25 48.12 -72 12 07.9           ~ 274 0
91 NGC 6144 GlC 16 27 13.86 -26 01 24.6           ~ 229 0
92 NGC 6139 GlC 16 27 39.987 -38 50 57.03   11.03 9.68     ~ 199 0
93 ESO 390-6 GlC 16 28 40.10 -35 21 13.0     12.0     ~ 89 0
94 M 107 GlC 16 32 31.86 -13 03 13.6           ~ 757 0
95 ESO 452-11 GlC 16 39 25.50 -28 23 52.0           ~ 56 0
96 M 13 GlC 16 41 41.634 +36 27 40.75     5.8     ~ 2130 0
97 NGC 6229 GlC 16 46 58.641 +47 31 36.38   9.38 9.86     ~ 350 0
98 M 12 GlC 16 47 14.18 -01 56 54.7     6.07     ~ 635 0
99 NGC 6235 GlC 16 53 25.36 -22 10 38.8   11.99 7.20     ~ 174 0
100 M 10 GlC 16 57 09.05 -04 06 01.1     4.98     ~ 754 0
101 NGC 6256 GlC 16 59 32.68 -37 07 17.1           ~ 140 0
102 GCl 50 GlC 16 59 51.1 -00 32 00   15.70       ~ 184 1
103 M 62 GlC 17 01 12.60 -30 06 44.5           ~ 579 0
104 M 19 GlC 17 02 37.69 -26 16 04.6   8.45 5.57     ~ 350 1
105 NGC 6284 GlC 17 04 28.747 -24 45 51.22   10.72 7.43     ~ 265 0
106 NGC 6287 GlC 17 05 09.4906767360 -22 42 28.099250172   11.49 10.30     ~ 210 0
107 NGC 6293 GlC 17 10 10.42 -26 34 54.2           ~ 263 0
108 NGC 6304 GlC 17 14 32.25 -29 27 43.3           ~ 336 0
109 NGC 6316 GlC 17 16 37.42 -28 08 24.0   10.33 9.03     ~ 198 0
110 M 92 GlC 17 17 07.39 +43 08 09.4     6.52     ~ 2027 0
111 NGC 6325 GlC 17 17 59.27 -23 45 57.7           ~ 161 0
112 M 9 GlC 17 19 11.78 -18 30 58.5   9.36 8.42     ~ 299 0
113 NGC 6342 GlC 17 21 10.14 -19 35 14.7     10.01     ~ 269 0
114 NGC 6356 GlC 17 23 34.99 -17 48 46.9   10.01 7.42     ~ 336 1
115 NGC 6355 GlC 17 23 58.65 -26 21 12.3   12.46 11.05     ~ 142 0
116 NGC 6352 GlC 17 25 29.11 -48 25 19.8           ~ 376 0
117 IC 1257 Bz? 17 27 06.00 -07 05 00.0           ~ 74 0
118 ESO 454-29 GlC 17 27 33.24 -30 48 07.8           ~ 235 0
119 NGC 6366 GlC 17 27 44.24 -05 04 47.5           ~ 289 0
120 GCl 66.1 GlC 17 30 38.90 -31 35 44.0           ~ 108 0
121 ESO 455-11 GlC 17 31 05.20 -29 58 54.0           ~ 156 0
122 NGC 6362 GlC 17 31 54.99 -67 02 54.0           ~ 548 0
123 Liller 1 Cl* 17 33 24.50 -33 23 20.0           ~ 240 0
124 NGC 6380 GlC 17 34 28.00 -39 04 09.0           ~ 123 0
125 ESO 455-23 GlC 17 35 47.80 -30 28 11.0           ~ 230 0
126 Ton 2 GlC 17 36 10.500 -38 33 12.00           ~ 83 0
127 NGC 6388 GlC 17 36 17.461 -44 44 08.34   7.40       ~ 875 1
128 M 14 GlC 17 37 36.15 -03 14 45.3   9.55 5.73     ~ 357 0
129 NGC 6401 GlC 17 38 36.93 -23 54 31.5   11.31 10.71     ~ 156 0
130 NGC 6397 GlC 17 40 42.09 -53 40 27.6     5.17     ~ 1911 0
131 ESO 520-21 GlC 17 43 42.20 -26 13 21.0           ~ 167 0
132 NGC 6426 GlC 17 44 54.71 +03 10 12.5           ~ 206 0
133 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13427 0
134 NAME cl Djorgovski 1 GlC 17 47 28.30 -33 03 56.0           ~ 69 0
135 Cl Terzan 5 Cl* 17 48 05.00 -24 46 48.0           ~ 788 1
136 NGC 6440 GlC 17 48 52.67 -20 21 34.5   12.01 10.10     ~ 519 1
137 NGC 6441 GlC 17 50 13.06 -37 03 05.2           ~ 846 0
138 ESO 455-49 GlC 17 50 46.40 -31 16 31.0           ~ 174 0
139 NGC 6453 GlC 17 50 51.77 -34 35 55.1   10.49       ~ 154 0
140 NAME UKS 1 GlC 17 54 27.20 -24 08 43.0           ~ 84 0
141 NGC 6496 GlC 17 59 03.68 -44 15 57.4   9.96       ~ 209 0
142 GCl 80.1 GlC 18 01 38.80 -26 50 23.0           ~ 109 0
143 ESO 456-38 GlC 18 01 49.10 -27 49 33.0           ~ 80 0
144 NGC 6517 GlC 18 01 50.376 -08 57 34.39   11.08       ~ 166 0
145 ESO 521-16 GlC 18 02 57.40 -26 04 00.0           ~ 91 0
146 NGC 6522 GlC 18 03 34.08 -30 02 02.3           ~ 502 0
147 NGC 6535 GlC 18 03 50.51 -00 17 51.5     9.85     ~ 273 0
148 NGC 6528 GlC 18 04 49.61 -30 03 20.8   12.12 10.65     ~ 504 0
149 NGC 6539 GlC 18 04 49.74 -07 35 09.1           ~ 211 0
150 NGC 6540 GlC 18 06 08.60 -27 45 55.0           ~ 109 0
151 NGC 6544 GlC 18 07 20.58 -24 59 50.4   11.36 9.90     ~ 276 0
152 NGC 6541 GlC 18 08 02.36 -43 42 53.6           ~ 354 0
153 NGC 6553 GlC 18 09 15.68 -25 54 27.9   9.08       ~ 581 0
154 NGC 6558 GlC 18 10 17.6 -31 45 50           ~ 211 0
155 IC 1276 GlC 18 10 44.26 -07 12 27.3           ~ 112 0
156 ESO 522-1 GlC 18 12 15.80 -22 44 31.0     14.86     ~ 87 1
157 NGC 6569 GlC 18 13 38.88 -31 49 35.2   10.78 9.47     ~ 221 0
158 NGC 6584 GlC 18 18 37.60 -52 12 56.8     8.17     ~ 271 0
159 NGC 6624 GlC 18 23 40.51 -30 21 39.7           ~ 843 1
160 M 28 GlC 18 24 32.89 -24 52 11.4           ~ 733 0
161 NGC 6638 GlC 18 30 56.25 -25 29 47.1   10.81 9.68     ~ 218 0
162 M 69 GlC 18 31 23.10 -32 20 53.1           ~ 443 0
163 NGC 6642 GlC 18 31 54.23 -23 28 34.1   11.30 10.24     ~ 186 0
164 NGC 6652 GlC 18 35 45.63 -32 59 26.6           ~ 402 0
165 M 22 GlC 18 36 23.94 -23 54 17.1           ~ 1320 0
166 ESO 591-12 GlC 18 41 29.90 -19 49 33.0           ~ 105 0
167 M 70 GlC 18 43 12.76 -32 17 31.6           ~ 361 0
168 NGC 6712 GlC 18 53 04.32 -08 42 21.5           ~ 498 0
169 NAME SDG G 18 55 03.1 -30 28 42   4.5 3.6     ~ 2031 2
170 M 54 GlC 18 55 03.33 -30 28 47.5           ~ 1018 0
171 NGC 6717 GlC 18 55 06.04 -22 42 05.3           ~ 226 0
172 NGC 6723 GlC 18 59 33.15 -36 37 56.1           ~ 477 0
173 NGC 6749 OpC 19 05 15.36 +01 54 00.0     12.4     ~ 147 0
174 HD 178443 HB* 19 10 36.8478001512 -43 16 36.165827604 10.82 10.69 10.017 9.779   F8 48 1
175 NGC 6752 GlC 19 10 52.11 -59 59 04.4           ~ 1927 0
176 NGC 6760 GlC 19 11 12.06 +01 01 49.7   11.37 9.78     ~ 222 0
177 M 56 GlC 19 16 35.57 +30 11 00.5           ~ 401 0
178 Cl Terzan 7 GlC 19 17 43.92 -34 39 27.8           ~ 407 0
179 GCl 111 GlC 19 18 02.10 +18 34 18.0           ~ 99 0
180 BPS CS 22947-0187 HB* 19 18 31.6265761728 -47 13 31.155549384   13.63 12.99 12.508 12.085 CEMP-s 37 0
181 NGC 6791 OpC 19 20 53 +37 46.7   10.52 9.5     ~ 987 0
182 Cl Arp 2 GlC 19 28 44.11 -30 21 20.3     12.41     ~ 338 0
183 M 55 GlC 19 39 59.71 -30 57 53.1     6.49     ~ 821 0
184 Cl Terzan 8 GlC 19 41 44.41 -33 59 58.1     11.54     ~ 301 0
185 GCl 114 GlC 19 45 14.40 -08 00 26.0     7.54     ~ 130 0
186 M 71 GlC 19 53 46.49 +18 46 45.1           ~ 1085 0
187 M 75 GlC 20 06 04.841 -21 55 20.14     8.26     ~ 349 0
188 NGC 6934 GlC 20 34 11.37 +07 24 16.1           ~ 396 0
189 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2425 2
190 M 72 GlC 20 53 27.70 -12 32 14.3     8.96     ~ 403 0
191 NGC 7006 GlC 21 01 29.465 +16 11 16.49     10.46     ~ 511 0
192 BPS CS 22898-0027 Pe* 21 05 45.0996805992 -18 36 57.501493128   13.26 12.76 12.476 12.094 CEMP-r/s 81 0
193 M 15 GlC 21 29 58.33 +12 10 01.2           ~ 3061 0
194 M 2 GlC 21 33 27.02 -00 49 23.7     6.25     ~ 984 1
195 M 30 GlC 21 40 22.12 -23 10 47.5     7.10     ~ 998 0
196 Cl Pal 12 GlC 21 46 38.84 -21 15 09.4     11.89     ~ 500 0
197 GCl 124 GlC 23 06 44.48 +12 46 19.2   15.6       ~ 260 1
198 NGC 7492 GlC 23 08 26.68 -15 36 41.3     10.48     ~ 287 0

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2023.01.27-09:08:31

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