2010A&A...520A..27G


Query : 2010A&A...520A..27G

2010A&A...520A..27G - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 520, A27-27 (2010/9-2)

On the radiative equilibrium of irradiated planetary atmospheres.

GUILLOT T.

Abstract (from CDS):

The evolution of stars and planets is mostly controlled by the properties of their atmosphere. This is particularly true in the case of exoplanets close to their stars, for which one has to account both for an (often intense) irradiation flux, and from an intrinsic flux responsible for the progressive loss of the inner planetary heat. The goals of the present work are to help understanding the coupling between radiative transfer and advection in exoplanetary atmospheres and to provide constraints on the temperatures of the deep atmospheres. This is crucial in assessing whether modifying assumed opacity sources and/or heat transport may explain the inflated sizes of a significant number of giant exoplanets found so far. I use a simple analytical approach inspired by Eddington's approximation for stellar atmospheres to derive a relation between temperature and optical depth valid for plane-parallel static grey atmospheres which are both transporting an intrinsic heat flux and receiving an outer radiation flux. The model is parameterized as a function of mean visible and thermal opacities, respectively. The model is shown to reproduce relatively well temperature profiles obtained from more sophisticated radiative transfer calculations of exoplanetary atmospheres. It naturally explains why a temperature inversion (stratosphere) appears when the opacity in the optical becomes significant compared to that in the infrared. I further show that the mean equivalent flux (proportional to T4) is conserved in the presence of horizontal advection on constant optical depth levels. This implies with these hypotheses that the deep atmospheric temperature used as outer boundary for the evolution models should be calculated from models pertaining to the entire planetary atmosphere, not from ones that are relevant to the day side or to the substellar point. In these conditions, present-day models yield deep temperatures that are ∼1000K too cold to explain the present size of planet HD 209458b. An tenfold increase in the infrared to visible opacity ratio would be required to slow the planetary cooling and contraction sufficiently to explain its size. However, the mean equivalent flux is not conserved anymore in the presence of opacity variations, or in the case of non-radiative vertical transport of energy: The presence of clouds on the night side or a downward transport of kinetic energy and its dissipation at deep levels would help making the deep atmosphere hotter and may explain the inflated sizes of giant exoplanets.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): planetary systems - stars: atmospheres - planets and satellites: general

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 HD 209458b Pl 22 03 10.7729598762 +18 53 03.548248479           ~ 1685 1

Query : 2010A&A...520A..27G

Basic data :
HD 209458b -- Extra-solar Planet
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
Pl (), Pl? (), * (HD)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
22 03 10.7729598762 +18 53 03.548248479 (Optical) [ 0.0482 0.0448 90 ] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
22 00 48.0726626668 +18 38 32.213648122 [ 0.0482 0.0448 90 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
076.7533286144181 -28.5269064048032 [ 0.0482 0.0448 90 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
29.579 -17.890 [0.083 0.075 90] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of parallax is : 'value quality [error] bibcode'
  • value : parallax value
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • [error] : mean error
  • bibcode : bibcode of the parallax reference
Parallaxes (mas):
20.6745 [0.0526] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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Hierarchy : number of linked objects
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HD 209458b NAME Osiris

References (1685 between 1850 and 2022) (Total 1685)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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2022.08.10-06:09:26

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