2012A&A...541A.146C


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.08.09CEST05:03:10

2012A&A...541A.146C - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 541A, 146-146 (2012/5-1)

On the nature of candidate luminous blue variables in M 33.

CLARK J.S., CASTRO N., GARCIA M., HERRERO A., NAJARRO F., NEGUERUELA I., RITCHIE B.W. and SMITH K.T.

Abstract (from CDS):

Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are a class of highly unstable stars that have been proposed to play a critical role in massive stellar evolution as well as being the progenitors of some of the most luminous supernovae known. However the physical processes underlying their characteristic instabilities are currently unknown. In order to provide observational constraints on this behaviour we have initiated a pilot study of the population of (candidate) LBVs in the Local Group galaxy M 33. To accomplish this we have obtained new spectra of 18 examples within M 33. These provide a baseline of ≥4yr with respect to previous observations, which is well suited to identifying LBV outbursts. We also employed existing multi-epoch optical and mid-IR surveys of M 33 to further constrain the variability of the sample and search for the presence of dusty ejecta. Combining the datasets reveals that spectroscopic and photometric variability appears common, although in the majority of cases further observations will be needed to distinguish between an origin for this behavour in short lived stochastic wind structure and low level photospheric pulsations or coherent long term LBV excursions. Of the known LBVs we report a hitherto unidentified excursion of M 33 Var C between 2001-5, while the transition of the WNLh star B517 to a cooler B supergiant phase between 1993-2010 implies an LBV classification. Proof-of-concept quantitative model atmosphere analysis is provided for Romano's star; the resultant stellar parameters being consistent with the finding that the LBV excursions of this star are accompanied by changes in bolometric luminosity. The combination of temperature and luminosity of two stars, the BHG [HS80] 110A and the cool hypergiant B324, appear to be in violation of the empirical Humphreys-Davidson limit. Mid-IR observations demonstrate that a number of candidates appear associated with hot circumstellar dust, although no objects as extreme as η Car are identified. The combined dataset suggests that the criteria employed to identify candidate LBVs results in a heterogeneous sample, also containing stars demonstrating the B[e] phenomenon. Of these, a subset of optically faint, low luminosity stars associated with hot dust are of particular interest since they appear similar to the likely progenitor of SN 2008S and the 2008 NGC 300 transient (albeit suffering less intrinsic extinction). The results of such a multiwavelength observational approach, employing multiplexing spectrographs and supplemented with quantitative model atmosphere analysis, appears to show considerable promise in both identifying and characterising the physical properties of LBVs as well as other short lived phases of massive stellar evolution.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: evolution - circumstellar matter - binaries: general - stars: winds, outflows - stars: early-type

CDS comments: Table 2 N93351, N45901 and N125093 are respectively LGGS J013352.42+303909.6, LGGS J013327.40+303029.5 and LGGS J013415.42+302816.4 (from Massey et al. 2006AJ....131.2478M).

Simbad objects: 74

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Number of rows : 74

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9478 1
2 [BGK2002] B16 V* 00 54 44.645 -37 42 39.13   18.91 19.02     WN11 6 0
3 NGC 300 GiG 00 54 53.4460065856 -37 41 03.182962667 8.83 8.69 8.13 7.46   ~ 1308 2
4 HD 5980 WR* 00 59 26.5847969465 -72 09 53.927725716   11.13 11.31   11.029 WN4+O7I: 359 1
5 LGGS J013235.25+303017.7 s*b 01 32 35.2084843940 +30 30 17.383452637 17.093 18.052 18.007 17.871 17.706 cLBV 6 0
6 2MASS J01324221+3021138 s?r 01 32 42.21 +30 21 13.9 17.041 18.11 17.262 16.447 15.828 cLBV 8 1
7 [MBH96] 5 s*b 01 32 42.8836667400 +30 38 46.904431175 15.684 16.737 16.727 16.708 16.650 B2.5Ia 9 0
8 LGGS J013248.26+303950.4 s*b 01 32 48.26 +30 39 50.4 16.13 17.32 17.25 17.01 16.89 cLBV 7 1
9 [HS80] B43 s?b 01 33 00.02 +30 33 32.4 17.104 18.192 18.317 18.372 18.389 cLBV 9 1
10 LGGS J013309.12+304954.5 ** 01 33 09.0992451239 +30 49 54.418201140 16.781 17.865 17.910 17.837 17.857 Ofpe/WN9 9 0
11 [HS80] B92 a WR* 01 33 11.4094889836 +30 48 56.775158735 15.789 16.607 16.494 16.398 16.311 WNE+B3I 12 0
12 [MCM2000] Em 32 s*b 01 33 24.5764698148 +30 23 28.151499202 18.66 19.49 19.58 19.27 19.53 cLBV 7 0
13 LGGS J013327.26+303909.3 WR* 01 33 27.2192432287 +30 39 09.070547320 16.750 17.786 17.954 17.906 17.889 Ofpe/WN9 12 0
14 LGGS J013327.40+303029.4 s*y 01 33 27.40 +30 30 29.5 18.5 18.28 17.57 17.2 16.8 F5I 8 0
15 [HS80] B133 s*b 01 33 28.9550344531 +30 47 43.975373675 15.715 16.677 16.742 16.737 16.756 B2.5Ia 32 0
16 IFM-B 549 WR* 01 33 32.6004531466 +30 41 27.126564598 18.083 18.925 18.985 18.830 18.720 WNL/LBV 19 0
17 LGGS J013333.22+303343.4 Ce* 01 33 33.22 +30 33 43.4 18.30 19.30 19.40 18.44 18.89 cLBV 8 0
18 [HS53] C s*b 01 33 35.1032949241 +30 36 00.286911666 15.543 16.531 16.429 16.297 16.137 LBV 60 0
19 2MASS J01333949+3045405 s*b 01 33 39.4802788432 +30 45 40.514332443 16.553 17.567 17.503 17.404 17.350 B0.5Ia+WNE 22 0
20 [S92b] S204 s*b 01 33 40.60 +30 41 37.1   19.9 18.3 18.1 18.2 O8-9I 5 0
21 [HS80] 110A s*b 01 33 41.220 +30 22 37.15 15.181 16.236 16.285 16.279 16.321 B1Ia 22 0
22 LGGS J013344.26+303148.0 s*b 01 33 44.26 +30 31 48.0 16.162 17.229 17.315 17.334 17.352 B1Ia+ 7 0
23 [HS53] B s*b 01 33 49.1983926201 +30 38 09.102418246 15.330 16.243 16.208 16.026 15.947 LBV 50 0
24 FSZ 256 s?b 01 33 50.159 +30 41 25.99 15.759 16.854 16.819 16.434 16.304 cLBV 14 0
25 IFM-B 1040 * 01 33 50.2 +30 38 37     15.90     ~ 3 0
26 [MBH96] 215 * 01 33 50.43 +30 38 33.9 15.922 15.944 16.335 15.751 15.610 B2Ib 11 0
27 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.904 +30 39 35.79 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5148 1
28 [MBH96] 218 V* 01 33 50.92 +30 39 36.9 15.352 15.141 14.173 13.687 13.351 ~ 5 0
29 LGGS J013352.42+303909.6 s*b 01 33 52.388 +30 39 09.56 16 16.4 16.165 16 15.7 F0Ia 16 0
30 [MBH96] 236 WR* 01 33 53.60 +30 38 51.6 16.854 17.885 18.091 18.089 18.069 Ofpe/WN9 14 0
31 D33 J013354.8+303222.6 WR* 01 33 54.85 +30 32 22.8 17.226 18.336 18.338 18.214 18.129 WN9-10 9 0
32 [HS80] B324 s*y 01 33 55.93 +30 45 30.4 14.941 15.287 14.859 14.545 14.398 A8-F0Ia 30 1
33 LGGS J013357.73+301714.2 sg* 01 33 57.73 +30 17 14.2 16.798 17.447 17.387 17.290 17.204 A0Ia 6 0
34 IFM-B 1330 sg* 01 33 59.40 +30 23 10.6 16.482 17.282 17.183 17.056 16.990 A0Ia 6 0
35 IFM-B 1345 s*b 01 33 59.8089745192 +30 23 00.214429989 15.386 16.404 16.395 16.332 16.327 B6Ia 8 0
36 [HS80] B416 s*b 01 34 06.5995662243 +30 41 47.601487098 15.118 16.257 16.084 15.858 15.761 O9.5Ia 24 0
37 2MASS J01341090+3034373 s*b 01 34 10.91 +30 34 37.4 15.13 16.09 16.027 15.87 15.70 LBV 33 0
38 LGGS J013415.42+302816.4 s*y 01 34 15.3916793939 +30 28 16.205632931 18.4 18.13 17.28 16.8 16.2 F0-F2Ia 9 0
39 [HS80] B517 WR* 01 34 16.07 +30 36 42.1   18.04 17.95     Ofpe/WN9 18 0
40 [HS80] B526 s*b 01 34 16.10 +30 33 44.9 16.318 17.170 17.120 16.964 16.847 B2.5Ia 18 0
41 D33 J013416.4+303120.9 s*b 01 34 16.4146136126 +30 31 20.698961177 16.1 17.23 17.14 17.0 17.0 B2-3Ia 9 0
42 V* Y Tri s*b 01 34 18.3451294418 +30 38 36.812382594 17.065 18.1 18.22 18.099 18.010 Ofpe/WN9 35 0
43 FSZ 458 s*b 01 34 22.881 +30 44 11.11 16.497 17.326 17.216 17.114 17.005 B8Ia 14 1
44 Pul -3 120290 sg* 01 34 24.7487036841 +30 33 06.425845951 16.075 17.050 16.604 16.727 16.670 B8-A0Ia 9 1
45 [MCM2000] Em 50 s*b 01 34 26.0853357851 +30 34 24.566359349 18.38 19.23 18.97 18.59 18.27 cLBV 11 0
46 LGGS J013429.64+303732.1 s*b 01 34 29.6286707875 +30 37 32.063269335 16.24 17.12 17.11 17.05 16.93 B8Ia 7 0
47 LGGS J013432.24+304702.7 * 01 34 32.24 +30 47 02.7 15.939 17.171 17.267 17.325 17.631 ~ 1 0
48 LGGS J013432.50+304703.5 * 01 34 32.50 +30 47 03.5 16.844 17.541 17.861 17.726 17.681 ~ 1 0
49 LGGS J013442.14+303216.0 s*y 01 34 42.1054788948 +30 32 15.845790218 17.975 17.910 17.125 16.616 16.44 A8Ia 9 1
50 GALEX 2482576446735777935 s*b 01 34 59.4431989969 +30 37 01.718171618 17.35 18.59 18.37 17.88 17.69 cLBV 11 0
51 LGGS J013500.30+304150.9 WR* 01 35 00.30 +30 41 50.9 18.37 19.22 19.30 18.60 19.11 cLBV 6 0
52 NAME Romano's Star WR* 01 35 09.7011265200 +30 41 57.173367187   16.5 18.04     Ofpe/WN9 45 1
53 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5698 1
54 HD 269006 s*b 05 02 07.3944119328 -71 20 13.118657760 9.93 10.60 10.55 10.43 10.38 LBV 232 0
55 V* S Dor sg* 05 18 14.3572490675 -69 15 01.148131817 9.08 10.39 10.25 9.74 9.14 A5Iaeq 344 0
56 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14874 1
57 HD 36402 WR* 05 26 03.9637508160 -67 29 57.087055949   11.25 11.621 11.65   (WC) 132 0
58 HD 269858 s*b 05 36 43.6942807271 -69 29 47.449383685   10.24 10.15 9.95 9.05 LBV 266 2
59 V* VY CMa s*r 07 22 58.32877 -25 46 03.2355 12.01 10.19 7.95     M5Iae 998 0
60 HD 90177 s*b 10 22 53.8426931454 -59 37 28.361118869 9.16 9.66 8 8.15   LBV 303 0
61 * eta Car Em* 10 45 03.5455050 -59 41 03.951060 6.37 7.034 6.21 4.90 4.41 OBepec 2209 0
62 V* AG Car WR* 10 56 11.5779283438 -60 27 12.809532379 7.00 7.57 6.96 7.73   WN11h 592 0
63 Cl Westerlund 1 OpC 16 47 04.00 -45 51 04.9           ~ 468 0
64 * zet01 Sco s*b 16 53 59.7270104119 -42 21 43.313745214 4.80 5.31 4.79 4.32 3.86 B1Ia-0ek 348 0
65 HD 160529 sg* 17 41 59.0257256544 -33 30 13.702939546 8.17 7.87 6.66 5.50 4.51 A2Ia 183 1
66 IRAS 18576+0341 s*b 19 00 10.89456 +03 45 47.1096           B8I 81 1
67 IRC +10420 pA* 19 26 48.0981288433 +11 21 16.756524951   13.98 11.66     F8Ia+e 453 0
68 * P Cyg s*b 20 17 47.2020844 +38 01 58.552724 4.66 5.24 4.82 4.28 4.02 B1-2Ia-0ep 1131 1
69 Schulte 12 s*b 20 32 40.9574572449 +41 14 29.276333992 16.1 14.45 11.702     B3-4Ia+ 359 0
70 SN 2008S ev 20 34 45.33 +60 05 58.4   19.89 18.79 17.93   SNIIn? 211 1
71 NML Cyg s*r 20 46 25.5382179476 +40 06 59.396202678   18.64 16.60     M7/8 483 0
72 * rho Cas LP* 23 54 23.0339951270 +57 29 57.766930774 7.00 5.85 4.59 3.63 2.89 G2_0 360 0
73 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7000 0
74 [HS80] 110 As* ~ ~           ~ 5 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.08.09-05:03:10

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