2013A&A...549A...5R


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.16CEST17:22:11

2013A&A...549A...5R - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 549A, 5-5 (2013/1-1)

Initial phases of massive star formation in high infrared extinction clouds. II. Infall and onset of star formation.

RYGL K.L.J., WYROWSKI F., SCHULLER F. and MENTEN K.M.

Abstract (from CDS):

The onset of massive star formation is not well understood because of observational and theoretical difficulties. To find the dense and cold clumps where massive star formation can take place, we compiled a sample of high infrared extinction clouds. We observed the clumps in these high extinction clouds in the 1.2mm continuum emission and ammonia with the goals of deriving the masses, densities, temperatures, and kinematic distances. We try to understand the star-formation stages of the high extinction clumps by studying their infall and outflow properties, the presence of a young stellar object (YSO), and the level of the CO depletion. Are the physical parameters, density, mass, temperature, and column density correlated with the star-forming properties? Does the cloud morphology, quantified through the column density contrast between the clump and the clouds, have an impact on the evolution of star formation occurring inside it? Star-formation properties, such as infall, outflow, CO depletion, and the presence of YSOs, were derived from a molecular line survey performed with the IRAM 30m and the APEX 12m telescopes. We find that the HCO+(1-0) transition is the most sensitive for detecting infalling motions. SiO, an outflow tracer, was mostly detected toward sources with infall, indicating that infall is accompanied by collimated outflows. We calculated infall velocities from the line profiles and found them to be of the order of 0.3-7km/s. The presence of YSOs within a clump depends mostly on the clump column density; no indication of YSOs were found below 4x1022cm2. Star formation is on the verge of beginning in clouds that have a low column density contrast; the infall is not yet present in the majority of the clumps. The first signs of ongoing star formation are broadly observed in clouds where the column density contrast between the clump and the cloud is higher than two; most clumps show infall and outflow. Finally, we find the most evolved clumps in clouds that have a column density contrast higher than three; in many clumps, the infall has already halted, and toward most clumps we found indications of YSOs. Hence, the cloud morphology, based on the column density contrast between the cloud and the clumps, seems to have a direct connection with the evolutionary stage of the objects forming inside.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - ISM: clouds - ISM: jets and outflows - ISM: molecules - submillimeter: ISM

Simbad objects: 59

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Number of rows : 59

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 LDN 1521F DNe 04 28 39.3 +26 51 43           ~ 183 1
2 3C 273 BLL 12 29 06.6996828061 +02 03 08.598846466   13.05 14.830 14.11   ~ 5320 1
3 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11552 0
4 NAME Sgr B2 (North) Rad 17 47 20.2 -28 22 21           ~ 515 1
5 W 31c HII 18 10 29.1 -19 56 05           ~ 301 0
6 HEC G012.73-00.58 MM2 cor 18 15 32.7 -18 10 15           ~ 2 0
7 HEC G013.28-00.34 MM1 cor 18 15 39.9 -17 34 37           ~ 2 0
8 HEC G012.73-00.58 MM1 cor 18 15 41.3 -18 12 44           ~ 2 0
9 HEC G013.97-00.45 MM1 cor 18 17 16.5 -17 01 16           ~ 2 0
10 [PW2010] 45 Y*O 18 17 35.136 -17 06 48.73           ~ 5 0
11 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM3 cor 18 19 02.9 -16 30 29           ~ 2 0
12 HEC G017.19+00.81 MM1 cor 18 19 08.9 -13 36 29           ~ 3 0
13 HEC G017.19+00.81 MM3 cor 18 19 12.1 -13 33 32           ~ 2 0
14 SSTGLMC G017.2173+00.8199 Y*O 18 19 12.950 -13 33 43.60           ~ 6 0
15 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM2 cor 18 19 14.3 -16 30 41           ~ 2 0
16 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM1 cor 18 19 15.2 -16 29 59           ~ 2 0
17 HEC G017.19+00.81 MM4 cor 18 19 15.2 -13 39 29           ~ 2 0
18 HEC G014.39-00.75A MM2 cor 18 19 17.4 -16 44 04           ~ 2 0
19 HEC G014.39-00.75A MM1 cor 18 19 19.0 -16 43 49           ~ 2 0
20 HEC G014.63-00.57 MM4 cor 18 19 20.5 -16 31 42           ~ 2 0
21 HEC G014.39-00.75B MM3 cor 18 19 33.3 -16 45 01           ~ 2 0
22 HEC G016.93+00.24 MM1 cor 18 20 50.8 -14 06 01           ~ 2 0
23 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM5 cor 18 25 01.8 -13 09 06           ~ 2 0
24 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM4 cor 18 25 04.5 -13 08 27           ~ 2 0
25 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM3 cor 18 25 05.6 -13 08 20           ~ 2 0
26 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM2 cor 18 25 06.4 -13 08 51           ~ 2 0
27 HEC G018.26-00.24 MM1 cor 18 25 11.8 -13 08 04           ~ 2 0
28 HEC G022.06+00.21 MM1 cor 18 30 34.7 -09 34 46           ~ 2 0
29 SSTGLMC G022.0503+00.2109 Y*O 18 30 38.45664 -09 34 28.6356           ~ 6 0
30 HEC G023.38-00.12 MM2 cor 18 34 20.4 -08 33 16           ~ 2 0
31 HEC G023.38-00.12 MM1 cor 18 34 23.5 -08 32 20           ~ 2 0
32 HEC G025.79+00.81 MM1 cor 18 35 20.5 -05 56 36           ~ 2 0
33 HEC G025.79+00.81 MM2 cor 18 35 26.3 -05 59 21           ~ 2 0
34 HEC G024.37-00.15 MM2 cor 18 36 18.3 -07 41 00           ~ 2 0
35 HEC G024.37-00.15 MM1 cor 18 36 27.8 -07 40 24           ~ 2 0
36 HEC G024.94-00.15 MM2 cor 18 37 12.2 -07 11 23           ~ 2 0
37 HEC G024.94-00.15 MM1 cor 18 37 19.7 -07 11 41           ~ 2 0
38 HEC G024.61-00.33 MM2 cor 18 37 21.3 -07 33 07           ~ 3 0
39 MSX5C G024.6348-00.3236 Y*O 18 37 22.71264 -07 31 41.7036           ~ 15 0
40 MSX6C G025.3953+00.0336 Y*O 18 37 30.7044 -06 41 17.839           ~ 38 2
41 HEC G030.90+00.00A MM1 cor 18 47 28.10 -01 48 06.8           ~ 3 0
42 HEC G030.90+00.00B MM2 cor 18 47 41.9 -01 52 13           ~ 2 0
43 HEC G030.90+00.00C MM3 cor 18 47 48.2 -01 51 30           ~ 2 0
44 OH 34.26 +0.15 SFR 18 53 18.54 +01 14 57.9           ~ 460 0
45 HEC G034.85+00.43 MM1 cor 18 53 23.2 +01 53 16           ~ 2 0
46 HEC G034.71-00.63 MM1 cor 18 56 48.5731 +01 18 45.231           ~ 15 0
47 HEC G034.71-00.63 MM2 cor 18 56 58.2 +01 18 44           ~ 2 0
48 HEC G035.49-00.30A MM1 cor 18 57 05.2 +02 06 29           ~ 2 0
49 HEC G034.71-00.63 MM3 cor 18 57 06.5 +01 16 52           ~ 2 0
50 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM3 cor 18 57 08.1 +02 10 47           ~ 2 0
51 HEC G035.49-00.30B MM2 cor 18 57 08.4 +02 09 01           ~ 2 0
52 HEC G034.77-00.81 MM1 cor 18 57 40.7 +01 16 09           ~ 2 0
53 HEC G037.44+00.14B MM2 cor 18 59 10.2 +04 04 32           ~ 2 0
54 HEC G037.44+00.14A MM1 cor 18 59 14.0 +04 07 37           ~ 2 0
55 HEC G050.06+00.06 MM2 cor 19 23 09.2 +15 12 42           ~ 2 0
56 HEC G050.06+00.06 MM1 cor 19 23 12.4 +15 13 35           ~ 2 0
57 IRAS 19286+1823 Y*O 19 30 55.496 +18 29 57.06           ~ 7 0
58 LDN 663 DNe 19 36 55 +07 34.4           ~ 555 0
59 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 619 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.16-17:22:11

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