2013A&A...550A.136Y


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.13CEST08:23:31

2013A&A...550A.136Y - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 550A, 136-136 (2013/2-1)

Initial deep LOFAR observations of epoch of reionization windows. I. The North Celestial Pole.

YATAWATTA S., DE BRUYN A.G., BRENTJENS M.A., LABROPOULOS P., PANDEY V.N., KAZEMI S., ZAROUBI S., KOOPMANS L.V.E., OFFRINGA A.R., JELIC V., MARTINEZ RUBI O., VELIGATLA V., WIJNHOLDS S.J., BROUW W.N., BERNARDI G., CIARDI B., DAIBOO S., HARKER G., MELLEMA G., SCHAYE J., THOMAS R., VEDANTHAM H., CHAPMAN E., ABDALLA F.B., ALEXOV A., ANDERSON J., AVRUCH I.M., BATEJAT F., BELL M.E., BELL M.R., BENTUM M., BEST P., BONAFEDE A., BREGMAN J., BREITLING F., VAN DE BRINK R.H., BRODERICK J.W., BRUEGGEN M., CONWAY J., DE GASPERIN F., DE GEUS E., DUSCHA S., FALCKE H., FALLOWS R.A., FERRARI C., FRIESWIJK W., GARRETT M.A., GRIESSMEIER J.M., GUNST A.W., HASSALL T.E., HESSELS J.W.T., HOEFT M., IACOBELLI M., JUETTE E., KARASTERGIOU A., KONDRATIEV V.I., KRAMER M., KUNIYOSHI M., KUPER G., VAN LEEUWEN J., MAAT P., MANN G., McKEAN J.P., MEVIUS M., MOL J.D., MUNK H., NIJBOER R., NOORDAM J.E., NORDEN M.J., ORRU E., PAAS H., PANDEY-POMMIER M., PIZZO R., POLATIDIS A.G., REICH W., ROETTGERING H.J.A., SLUMAN J., SMIRNOV O., STAPPERS B., STEINMETZ M., TAGGER M., TANG Y., TASSE C., TER VEEN S., VERMEULEN R., VAN WEEREN R.J., WISE M., WUCKNITZ O. and ZARKA P.

Abstract (from CDS):

The aim of the LOFAR epoch of reionization (EoR) project is to detect the spectral fluctuations of the redshifted HI 21cm signal. This signal is weaker by several orders of magnitude than the astrophysical foreground signals and hence, in order to achieve this, very long integrations, accurate calibration for stations and ionosphere and reliable foreground removal are essential. One of the prospective observing windows for the LOFAR EoR project will be centered at the north celestial pole (NCP). We present results from observations of the NCP window using the LOFAR highband antenna (HBA) array in the frequency range 115MHz to 163MHz. The data were obtained in April 2011 during the commissioning phase of LOFAR. We used baselines up to about 30km. The data was processed using a dedicated processing pipeline which is an enhanced version of the standard LOFAR processing pipeline. With about 3 nights, of 6h each, effective integration we have achieved a noise level of about 100µJy/PSF in the NCP window. Close to the NCP, the noise level increases to about 180µJy/PSF, mainly due to additional contamination from unsubtracted nearby sources. We estimate that in our best night, we have reached a noise level only a factor of 1.4 above the thermal limit set by the noise from our Galaxy and the receivers. Our continuum images are several times deeper than have been achieved previously using the WSRT and GMRT arrays. We derive an analytical explanation for the excess noise that we believe to be mainly due to sources at large angular separation from the NCP. We present some details of the data processing challenges and how we solved them. Although many LOFAR stations were, at the time of the observations, in a still poorly calibrated state we have seen no artefacts in our images which would prevent us from producing deeper images in much longer integrations on the NCP window which are about to commence. The limitations present in our current results are mainly due to sidelobe noise from the large number of distant sources, as well as errors related to station beam variations and rapid ionospheric phase fluctuations acting on bright sources. We are confident that we can improve our results with refined processing.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): dark ages, reionization, first stars - instrumentation: interferometers - techniques: interferometric - methods: data analysis

Simbad objects: 8

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Number of rows : 8

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME NCP reg 00 00 00 +90 00.0           ~ 141 0
2 NVSS J011732+892848 Rad 01 17 18.698 +89 28 47.92           ~ 11 1
3 3C 61.1 Sy2 02 22 48.3 +86 18 51     19.0     ~ 181 1
4 3C 196 Sy1 08 13 36.056090 +48 13 02.63597   18.36 17.79     ~ 482 2
5 ELAIS N1 reg 16 10 01 +54 30.6           ~ 309 0
6 ICRF J184208.9+794617 Sy1 18 42 08.9910523393 +79 46 17.129210139   16.06 15.38     ~ 1207 0
7 NAME Cyg A Sy2 19 59 28.35645829 +40 44 02.0966496   16.22 15.10     ~ 2113 2
8 NAME Cas A SNR 23 23 24.000 +58 48 54.00           ~ 2414 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.13-08:23:31

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