2013A&A...551A..98L


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.12CEST11:08:05

2013A&A...551A..98L - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 551A, 98-98 (2013/3-1)

The Earliest Phases of Star Formation (EPoS): a Herschel key project. The thermal structure of low-mass molecular cloud cores.

LAUNHARDT R., STUTZ A.M., SCHMIEDEKE A., HENNING T., KRAUSE O., BALOG Z., BEUTHER H., BIRKMANN S., HENNEMANN M., KAINULAINEN J., KHANZADYAN T., LINZ H., LIPPOK N., NIELBOCK M., PITANN J., RAGAN S., RISACHER C., SCHMALZL M., SHIRLEY Y.L., STECKLUM B., STEINACKER J. and TACKENBERG J.

Abstract (from CDS):

The temperature and density structure of molecular cloud cores are the most important physical quantities that determine the course of the protostellar collapse and the properties of the stars they form. Nevertheless, density profiles often rely either on the simplifying assumption of isothermality or on observationally poorly constrained model temperature profiles. The instruments of the Herschel satellite provide us for the first time with both the spectral coverage and the spatial resolution that is needed to directly measure the dust temperature structure of nearby molecular cloud cores. With the aim of better constraining the initial physical conditions in molecular cloud cores at the onset of protostellar collapse, in particular of measuring their temperature structure, we initiated the guaranteed time key project (GTKP) ``The Earliest Phases of Star Formation'' (EPoS) with the Herschel satellite. This paper gives an overview of the low-mass sources in the EPoS project, the Herschel and complementary ground-based observations, our analysis method, and the initial results of the survey. We study the thermal dust emission of 12 previously well-characterized, isolated, nearby globules using FIR and submm continuum maps at up to eight wavelengths between 100 µm and 1.2mm. Our sample contains both globules with starless cores and embedded protostars at different early evolutionary stages. The dust emission maps are used to extract spatially resolved SEDs, which are then fit independently with modified blackbody curves to obtain line-of-sight-averaged dust temperature and column density maps. We find that the thermal structure of all globules (mean mass 7M) is dominated by external heating from the interstellar radiation field and moderate shielding by thin extended halos. All globules have warm outer envelopes (14-20K) and colder dense interiors (8-12K) with column densities of a few 1022cm–2. The protostars embedded in some of the globules raise the local temperature of the dense cores only within radii out to about 5000AU, but do not significantly affect the overall thermal balance of the globules. Five out of the six starless cores in the sample are gravitationally bound and approximately thermally stabilized. The starless core in CB244 is found to be supercritical and is speculated to be on the verge of collapse. For the first time, we can now also include externally heated starless cores in the Lsmm/Lbol vs. Tbol diagram and find that Tbol<25K seems to be a robust criterion to distinguish starless from protostellar cores, including those that only have an embedded very low-luminosity object.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: low-mass - stars: protostars - ISM: clouds - dust, extinction - infrared: ISM

Nomenclature: Tables 5-6: [LSS2013] CB NNN-SMM N=6, [LSS2013] BHR NNN-SMM N=1, [LSS2013] B NNN-SMM N=2, [LSS2013] CB 26-SMMN N=2.

Simbad objects: 66

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Number of rows : 66

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 [DB2002b] G121.03-9.97 MoC 00 39 03 +52 51.5           ~ 19 0
2 [LSS2013] CB 4-SMM cor 00 39 05.2 +52 51 47           ~ 2 0
3 [LSS2013] CB 6-SMM cor 00 49 24.3 +50 44 36           ~ 1 0
4 LBN 122.71-12.11 MoC 00 49 29 +50 44.6           ~ 27 0
5 NAME Per Region reg 03 37 00.0 +31 15 00           ~ 230 0
6 LDN 1388 DNe 04 03 15.6 +56 50 27           ~ 22 0
7 [LNW2010] CB 17-IRS smm 04 04 33.76 +56 56 16.5           ~ 6 0
8 [LNW2010] CB 17-SMM smm 04 04 37.7 +56 55 59           ~ 7 0
9 [LSS2013] CB 17-SMM cor 04 04 37.7 +56 55 59           ~ 1 0
10 LDN 1389 MoC 04 04 38 +56 56.2           ~ 81 0
11 HD 25347 * 04 04 39.2153291165 +56 44 31.691746110   9.11 8.02     G5III 16 0
12 NAME Tau-Aur Complex SFR 04 30 +25.0           ~ 1217 0
13 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3479 0
14 Barnard 220 DNe 04 41 38.8 +26 00 42           ~ 121 0
15 TYC 3356-266-1 * 04 58 49.6484108663 +52 12 16.520363920   10.43 9.59     ~ 2 0
16 HD 31487 SB* 04 59 03.7288656602 +51 56 32.070674579   9.47 8.12     G8IIIBa3 44 0
17 LDN 1437 DNe 04 59 04.1 +52 03 24           ~ 19 0
18 [LSS2013] CB 26-SMM1 cor 04 59 49.3 +52 04 39           ~ 1 0
19 LDN 1439 DNe 05 00 09 +52 04.9           ~ 77 0
20 [LSS2013] CB 26-SMM2 cor 05 00 14.5 +52 05 59           ~ 2 0
21 [LSS2013] CB 27-SMM cor 05 04 08.1 +32 43 30           ~ 3 0
22 LDN 1512 MoC 05 04 09.7 +32 43 09           ~ 160 0
23 NAME GUM Nebula ISM 07 43 -42.1           ~ 388 1
24 * zet Pup BY* 08 03 35.04754 -40 00 11.3321 0.89 1.98 2.25 2.36 2.58 O4I(n)fp 1092 1
25 V* FK Pup C* 08 09 10.9808623847 -36 17 06.983209624   12.70 12.00     C-N5 25 0
26 [LSS2013] BHR 12-SMM cor 08 09 32.7 -36 05 19           ~ 1 0
27 [LNW2010] BHR 12-SMM1 smm 08 09 32.7 -36 05 19           ~ 2 0
28 [LNW2010] BHR 12-SMM2 smm 08 09 32.7 -36 05 19           ~ 2 0
29 CG 30 CGb 08 09 32.8 -36 05 00           ~ 120 0
30 HD 68298 * 08 10 23.7226341925 -36 13 56.183293799   9.06 7.57     K4III 8 0
31 NAME Vela Pulsar Psr 08 35 20.65525 -45 10 35.1545           ~ 2057 1
32 NAME Lockman Hole reg 10 45 00.0 +58 00 00           ~ 748 0
33 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3027 0
34 LDN 146 MoC 16 57 17.5 -16 09 18           ~ 67 1
35 IRAS 16544-1604 Y*O 16 57 19.626 -16 09 23.30           ~ 31 1
36 * tet Oph bC* 17 22 00.5793468 -24 59 58.366974 2.18 3.03 3.26 3.38 3.58 OB 315 0
37 LDN 57 DNe 17 22 38.2 -23 49 34           ~ 283 1
38 [LSS2013] B 68-SMM cor 17 22 38.3 -23 49 51           ~ 2 0
39 NAME the Pipe Nebula DNe 17 30 -25.0           ~ 333 1
40 HD 167279 * 18 14 36.7265594010 -02 36 09.996192728   9.61 7.49     K5III 9 0
41 LDN 507 MoC 18 16 15 -02 32.8           ~ 28 0
42 [LNW2010] CB 130-SMM1 smm 18 16 15.6 -02 32 45           ~ 2 0
43 [LSS2013] CB 130-SMM cor 18 16 15.6 -02 32 45           ~ 1 0
44 [LNW2010] CB 130-SMM2 smm 18 16 15.6 -02 32 45           ~ 2 0
45 NAME Aql Rift DNe 18 32 -01.0           ~ 234 1
46 LDN 663 DNe 19 36 55 +07 34.4           ~ 555 0
47 [HSW99] B 335 SMM 1 cor 19 37 00.7 +07 34 08           ~ 20 0
48 HD 202986 * 21 15 42.5971188517 +68 21 07.701292795   8.29 7.92     F3V 22 0
49 BD+67 1302 * 21 16 38.6464209779 +68 12 43.033803122   10.35 9.15     G5 2 0
50 LDN 1177 DNe 21 17 38.62 +68 17 34.0           ~ 81 1
51 [LNW2010] CB 230-IRS1 smm 21 17 39.9 +68 17 36           ~ 6 0
52 [LSS2013] CB 230-SMM cor 21 17 39.9 +68 17 36           ~ 1 0
53 [LNW2010] CB 230-IRS2 smm 21 17 39.9 +68 17 36           ~ 5 0
54 HD 220086 * 23 19 40.3828416169 +73 55 27.607942981   7.88 7.60     F0 7 0
55 HD 220179 * 23 20 29.4263453513 +74 02 26.259732030   9.06 8.03     G5 4 0
56 BD+73 1031 Or* 23 20 52.1154669148 +74 14 07.079508764   11.17 10.22 9.63 9.16 K0IV 21 0
57 NAME Cas A SNR 23 23 24.000 +58 48 54.00           ~ 2414 1
58 [LNW2010] CB 244-SMM2 smm 23 25 26.8 +74 18 22           ~ 4 0
59 LDN 1262 MoC 23 25 47 +74 17.6           ~ 130 0
60 [LNW2010] CB 244-SMM1 smm 23 25 47.3 +74 17 44           ~ 3 0
61 HD 221071 ** 23 27 43.03410 +74 07 09.6587       8.05   F0 14 0
62 HD 221185 * 23 28 43.8891239302 +74 17 10.654325951   8.47 8.30     A2 3 0
63 NAME Cep Flare MoC 23 34 +72.0           ~ 102 0
64 NAME Aql Region reg ~ ~           ~ 304 0
65 NAME Gould Belt PoG ~ ~           ~ 711 1
66 NAME Galactic Bulge reg ~ ~           ~ 3391 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.12-11:08:05

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