2013A&A...556A..16G


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.15CET12:44:40

2013A&A...556A..16G - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 556A, 16-16 (2013/8-1)

Physical properties of high-mass clumps in different stages of evolution.

GIANNETTI A., BRAND J., SANCHEZ-MONGE A., FONTANI F., CESARONI R., BELTRAN M.T., MOLINARI S., DODSON R. and RIOJA M.J.

Abstract (from CDS):

The details of the process of massive star formation are still elusive. A complete characterization of the first stages of the process from an observational point of view is needed to constrain theories on the subject. In the past 20 years we have made a thorough investigation of colour-selected IRAS sources over the whole sky. The sources in the northern hemisphere were studied in detail and used to derive an evolutionary sequence based on their spectral energy distribution. To investigate the first stages of the process of high-mass star formation, we selected a sample of massive clumps previously observed with the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope at 1.2mm and with the ATNF Australia Telescope Compact Array at 1.3cm. We want to characterize the physical conditions in such sources, and test whether their properties depend on the evolutionary stage of the clump. With ATCA we observed the selected sources in the NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) transitions and in the H2O(616-523) maser line. Ammonia lines are a very good temperature probe that allow us to accurately determine the mass and the column, volume, and surface densities of the clumps. We also collected all data available to construct the spectral energy distribution of the individual clumps and to determine if star formation is already occurring through observations of its most common signposts, thus putting constraints on the evolutionary stage of the source. We fitted the spectral energy distribution between 1.2mm and 70µm with a modified black body to derive the dust temperature and independently determine the mass. We find that the clumps are cold (T∼10-30K), massive (M∼102-103M), and dense (n(H2)>105cm–3) and that they have high column densities (N(H2)∼1023cm–2). All clumps appear to be potentially able to form high-mass stars. The most massive clumps appear to be gravitationally unstable, if the only sources of support against collapse are turbulence and thermal pressure, which possibly indicates that the magnetic field is important in stabilizing them. After investigating how the average properties depend on the evolutionary phase of the source, we find that the temperature and central density progressively increase with time. Sources likely hosting a ZAMS star show a steeper radial dependence of the volume density and tend to be more compact than starless clumps.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: molecules - stars: formation - stars: massive

Simbad objects: 46

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Number of rows : 46

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 [BBC2006] IRAS 08477-4359 Clump 1 cor 08 49 35.13 -44 11 59.0           ~ 3 0
2 [BBC2006] IRAS 08589-4714 Clump 1 cor 09 00 39.71 -47 26 11.0           ~ 1 0
3 [BBC2006] IRAS 10088-5730 Clump 2 cor 10 10 41.70 -57 44 36.0           ~ 1 0
4 [BBC2006] IRAS 12300-6119 Clump 1 cor 12 32 49.86 -61 35 34.0           ~ 1 0
5 [BBC2006] IRAS 13039-6331 Clump 1 cor 13 07 08.19 -63 47 12.0           ~ 1 0
6 [BBC2006] IRAS 13560-6133 Clump 1 cor 13 59 31.91 -61 48 41.0           ~ 1 0
7 [BBC2006] IRAS 13560-6133 Clump 2 cor 13 59 33.04 -61 49 13.0           ~ 2 0
8 [BBC2006] IRAS 13563-6109 Clump 1 cor 13 59 57.73 -61 24 33.0           ~ 1 0
9 [BBC2006] IRAS 14166-6118 Clump 1 cor 14 20 19.50 -61 31 53.0           ~ 1 0
10 [BBC2006] IRAS 14166-6118 Clump 2 cor 14 20 21.74 -61 31 13.0           ~ 1 0
11 [BBC2006] IRAS 14183-6050 Clump 3 cor 14 22 21.54 -61 06 42.0           ~ 2 0
12 [BBC2006] IRAS 15038-5828 Clump 1 cor 15 07 32.52 -58 40 33.0           ~ 2 0
13 [BBC2006] IRAS 15072-5855 Clump 1 cor 15 11 08.94 -59 06 46.0           ~ 1 0
14 [BBC2006] IRAS 15278-5620 Clump 2 cor 15 31 44.17 -56 32 08.0           ~ 2 0
15 [BBC2006] IRAS 15278-5620 Clump 1 cor 15 31 45.13 -56 30 48.0           ~ 1 0
16 [BBC2006] IRAS 15454-5335 Clump 2 cor 15 48 40.82 -53 40 35.0           ~ 1 0
17 [BBC2006] IRAS 15470-5419 Clump 4 cor 15 50 56.12 -54 30 38.0           ~ 1 0
18 [BBC2006] IRAS 15470-5419 Clump 3 cor 15 51 01.62 -54 26 46.0           ~ 3 0
19 [BBC2006] IRAS 15470-5419 Clump 1 cor 15 51 28.24 -54 31 42.0           ~ 3 0
20 [BBC2006] IRAS 15557-5215 Clump 2 cor 15 59 36.20 -52 22 58.0           ~ 3 0
21 [BBC2006] IRAS 15557-5215 Clump 3 cor 15 59 39.70 -52 25 14.0           ~ 3 0
22 [BBC2006] IRAS 15557-5215 Clump 1 cor 15 59 40.57 -52 23 30.0           ~ 1 0
23 [BBC2006] IRAS 15579-5303 Clump 1 cor 16 01 46.60 -53 11 41.0           ~ 1 0
24 [BBC2006] IRAS 15579-5303 Clump 3 cor 16 02 08.86 -53 08 53.0           ~ 1 0
25 [BBC2006] IRAS 16061-5048 Clump 2 cor 16 10 02.38 -50 49 33.0           ~ 1 0
26 [BBC2006] IRAS 16061-5048 Clump 4 cor 16 10 06.61 -50 57 09.0           ~ 3 0
27 AGAL G331.709+00.582 Y*O 16 10 06.61 -50 50 29.0           ~ 19 0
28 [BBC2006] IRAS 16093-5128 Clump 1 cor 16 12 49.45 -51 43 30.0           ~ 1 0
29 [BBC2006] IRAS 16093-5128 Clump 8 cor 16 12 49.63 -51 36 34.0           ~ 2 0
30 [BBC2006] IRAS 16093-5128 Clump 2 cor 16 12 55.46 -51 43 22.0           ~ 2 0
31 [BBC2006] IRAS 16093-5015 Clump 1 cor 16 13 01.85 -50 22 41.0           ~ 1 0
32 AGAL G333.759+00.366 Y*O 16 20 18.75 -49 34 54.0           ~ 9 0
33 [BBC2006] IRAS 16164-4837 Clump 2 cor 16 20 24.33 -48 44 58.0           ~ 1 0
34 [BBC2006] IRAS 16164-4929 Clump 3 cor 16 20 24.51 -49 35 34.0           ~ 2 0
35 [BBC2006] IRAS 16164-4929 Clump 6 cor 16 20 31.92 -49 35 26.0           ~ 1 0
36 [BBC2006] IRAS 16254-4844 Clump 1 cor 16 29 00.89 -48 50 31.0           ~ 2 0
37 [BBC2006] IRAS 16428-4109 Clump 2 cor 16 46 46.81 -41 14 22.0           ~ 1 0
38 [BBC2006] IRAS 16428-4109 Clump 1 cor 16 47 01.70 -41 15 18.0           ~ 1 0
39 [BBC2006] IRAS 16435-4515 Clump 3 cor 16 47 33.13 -45 22 51.0           ~ 3 0
40 [BBC2006] IRAS 16482-4443 Clump 2 cor 16 51 44.59 -44 46 50.0           ~ 3 0
41 [BBC2006] IRAS 16573-4214 Clump 2 cor 17 00 33.38 -42 25 18.0           ~ 3 0
42 [BBC2006] IRAS 17040-3959 Clump 1 cor 17 07 58.78 -40 02 24.0           ~ 2 0
43 [BBC2006] IRAS 17195-3811 Clump 2 cor 17 23 00.30 -38 14 58.0           ~ 2 0
44 [BBC2006] IRAS 17195-3811 Clump 3 cor 17 23 00.98 -38 15 38.0           ~ 1 0
45 [BBC2006] IRAS 17195-3811 Clump 1 cor 17 23 00.98 -38 13 54.0           ~ 1 0
46 [BBC2006] IRAS 17355-3241 Clump 1 cor 17 38 49.87 -32 43 27.0           ~ 1 0

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2019.11.15-12:44:40

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