2013A&A...558A..14M


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.08CEST03:12:09

2013A&A...558A..14M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 558A, 14-14 (2013/10-1)

On central black holes in ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

MIESKE S., FRANK M.J., BAUMGARDT H., LUETZGENDORF N., NEUMAYER N. and HILKER M.

Abstract (from CDS):

The dynamical mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of massive ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) are about 50% higher than predicted by stellar population models. Here we investigate the possibility that these apparently elevated M/L ratios of UCDs are caused by a central black hole (BH) that heats up the internal motion of stars. We focus on a sample of ∼50 extragalactic UCDs from the literature for which velocity dispersions and structural parameters have been measured. To be self-consistent in our BH mass estimates, we first redetermine the dynamical masses and M/L ratios of our sample UCDs, using up-to-date distance moduli and a consistent treatment of aperture and seeing effects. On average, the homogeneously redetermined dynamical mass and M/L ratios agree to within 5% with previous literature results. We calculate the ratio Ψ=(M/L)dyn/(M/L)pop between the dynamical and the stellar population M/L for an assumed age of 13Gyr. Ψ>1 indicates an elevated dynamical M/L ratio, suggesting dark mass on top of a canonical stellar population of old age. For all UCDs with Ψ>1 we estimate the mass of a hypothetical central black hole needed to reproduce the observed integrated velocity dispersion Massive UCDs (M>107M) have an average Ψ=1.7±0.2, implying notable amounts of dark mass in them. We find that, on average, central BH masses of 10-15% of the UCD mass can explain these elevated dynamical M/L ratios. The implied BH masses in UCDs range from several 105M to several 107M. In the MBH-luminosity plane, UCDs are offset by about two orders of magnitude in luminosity from the relation derived for galaxies. Our findings can be interpreted such that massive UCDs originate from progenitor galaxies with masses around ∼109M, and that those progenitors have SMBH occupation fractions of ∼60-100%. The suggested UCD progenitor masses agree with predictions from the tidal stripping scenario. Also, the typical BH mass fractions of nuclear clusters in such ∼109M galaxy bulges agree with the 10-15% BH fraction estimated for UCDs. Lower-mass UCDs (M<107M) exhibit a bimodal distribution in Ψ, suggestive of a coexistence of massive globular clusters and tidally stripped galaxies in this mass regime. Central BHs as relict tracers of tidally stripped progenitor galaxies are a plausible explanation for the elevated dynamical M/L ratios of UCDs. Direct observational tests of this scenario are suggested.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: clusters: general - galaxies: dwarf - galaxies: star clusters: general - galaxies: nuclei - galaxies: interactions - stars: kinematics and dynamics

CDS comments: Objects VUCD (in Virgo) = [JDJ2006] , UCD (in Fornax) = [DJG2000] UCO

Simbad objects: 61

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Number of rows : 61

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME Mayall II GlC 00 32 46.53 +39 34 40.5   14.564 13.807 13.208 12.684 ~ 370 1
2 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10903 1
3 [FDE2007] J033626.67-352201.5 GiC 03 36 26.7008506399 -35 22 01.459633137           ~ 9 1
4 [BAL2007] uc257.5 GiC 03 37 03.2448984794 -35 38 04.392833667   19.85 19.31     ~ 31 1
5 NAME UCD-FORS 81 GlC 03 38 06.3039061784 -35 28 58.553454257   18.85 19.31 18.80 18.18 ~ 37 1
6 NAME UCD-FORS 36 G 03 38 06.5037409851 -35 23 03.794412995     20.00   19 ~ 12 0
7 NAME UCD28 G 03 38 10.7381037831 -35 25 46.020883997     19.97   18.68 ~ 16 0
8 [DRG2004] 92:39 GlC 03 38 12.700 -35 28 57.41     20.66 20.27   ~ 20 0
9 NAME UCD31 GlC 03 38 16.5030487358 -35 26 19.501526807     20.60   19.65 ~ 21 0
10 [JPB2015] 054.5711568-35.4418764 GlC 03 38 17.0837108963 -35 26 30.898875420     20.83 20.44   ~ 18 0
11 [MHJ2008] F-7 GlC 03 38 17.61 -35 33 02.8     20.49     ~ 18 0
12 [MHJ2008] F-8 GlC 03 38 23.2399160755 -35 20 00.631909429     20.09 19.59   ~ 12 0
13 [MHJ2008] F-9 Gl? 03 38 25.5456740693 -35 37 42.655560820     20.06     ~ 13 0
14 [JPB2015] 054.6176396-35.4272815 GlC 03 38 28.38 -35 25 38.5     20.371   19.332 ~ 16 0
15 [MHJ2008] F-12 G 03 38 28.9794047433 -35 22 56.111573175     19.87     ~ 15 0
16 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 30 -35 27.3           ~ 1538 0
17 NAME UCD-FORS 50 G 03 38 33.82 -35 25 57.0     20.61   19.51 ~ 16 0
18 [MHJ2008] F-53 GlC 03 38 40.550 -35 29 09.70     20.93 20.35   ~ 18 0
19 2MASS J03385407-3533331 GiC 03 38 54.0548295896 -35 33 33.352307509   18.5 18.06     ~ 68 0
20 [BAL2007] gc241.1 GlC 03 39 17.72 -35 25 30.2     20.19     ~ 20 0
21 LEDA 2793608 GiC 03 39 35.9213136977 -35 28 24.471994346   18.82 19.12     ~ 42 1
22 [DJG2000] UCO 5 GiC 03 39 52.5447956746 -35 04 24.032437250   19.66 19.50     ~ 33 0
23 NAME Vir I ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24   10.00 8.49     ~ 5824 0
24 [FAB2017] NGC4486 S643 GlC 12 30 07.5690843498 +12 36 30.996360221           ~ 23 0
25 [CHA90] 114 G 12 30 45.91 +12 25 01.5   20.77 20.11     ~ 25 0
26 [HJC2005] 1316-3 G 12 30 46.20 +12 24 23.1     20.27     ~ 18 0
27 [CHA90] 154 G 12 30 47.70 +12 24 30.4   20.26 19.78     ~ 22 0
28 [JDJ2006] 3 G 12 30 57.3833546242 +12 25 44.499140903   19.32 17.97     ~ 42 0
29 [PLP2016] 187.747336+12.356404 GlC 12 30 59.3678219155 +12 21 23.049345963   21.20 20.11     ~ 20 0
30 [SFH81] 417 G 12 31 01.4778575124 +12 19 24.597519380     19.33     ~ 22 0
31 [JDJ2006] 4 GlC 12 31 04.4757913483 +11 56 36.488486778           ~ 21 0
32 [SFH81] 314 GlC 12 31 05.1312917254 +12 20 03.570464458     20.19     ~ 18 0
33 [JDJ2006] 5 GlC 12 31 11.8766910181 +12 41 01.081447941           ~ 26 0
34 [JDJ2006] 6 GlC 12 31 28.3597374414 +12 25 03.599290701           ~ 21 0
35 2MASS J12315289+1215589 GlC 12 31 52.8978463348 +12 15 59.053574946           ~ 39 0
36 NAME M59cO G 12 41 55.3339496460 +11 40 03.789131845           ~ 43 0
37 [VHH81] 41 GlC 13 24 38.9641409423 -43 20 06.480439303 20.20 19.59 18.59 17.94 17.32 ~ 13 0
38 [VHH81] 29 GlC 13 24 40.3751454941 -43 18 05.333414131 19.77 19.15 18.15 17.54 16.89 ~ 18 0
39 [VHH81] 11 GlC 13 24 54.7051627040 -43 01 21.762822596 19.55 18.96 17.91 17.26 16.61 ~ 19 0
40 [HGH2004] 201.24254-42.93612 GlC 13 24 58.19 -42 56 10.3 19.34 18.73 17.71 17.10 16.44 ~ 26 0
41 [R2001b] f2.GC-61 GlC 13 25 12.8699131968 -43 07 59.240462217 19.65 19.15 18.20 17.60 17.03 ~ 19 0
42 [VHH81] 5 GlC 13 25 16.12 -42 52 58.2 18.70 18.49 17.68 17.13 16.68 ~ 16 0
43 [HCH99] 1 GlC 13 25 16.22 -42 59 43.4 18.69 18.36 17.47 16.94 16.40 ~ 6 0
44 [HCH99] 6 PoG 13 25 25.3 -43 02 01           ~ 3 0
45 NAME Centaurus A Sy2 13 25 27.61509104 -43 01 08.8056025   8.18 6.84 6.66   ~ 3995 3
46 [HCH99] 15 GlC 13 25 29.800 -43 00 07.00 19.27 18.87 17.93 17.37 16.76 ~ 17 0
47 [KKF2001] J132530.29-425934.64 GlC 13 25 30.290 -42 59 34.80   19.71 20.0 18.45   ~ 22 0
48 [R2001b] f2.GC-26 GlC 13 25 30.350 -43 11 48.40 20.11 19.56 18.56 17.94 17.35 ~ 18 0
49 [KKF2001] J132531.61-430003.06 GlC 13 25 31.600 -43 00 02.80 21.06 20.99 19.93 19.20 18.43 ~ 26 0
50 [VHH81] 44 GlC 13 25 31.7329260782 -43 19 22.735785588 19.76 19.50 18.69 18.14 17.66 ~ 17 0
51 [R2001b] f2.GC-23 GlC 13 25 32.7820579360 -43 07 02.342413246 20.08 19.67 18.77 18.23 17.64 ~ 19 0
52 [VHH81] 153 GlC 13 25 34.650 -43 03 27.70     20.0 18.41   ~ 20 0
53 [VHH81] 17 GlC 13 25 39.7186771706 -42 55 59.137420988 18.82 18.51 17.63 17.10 16.57 ~ 19 0
54 [KKF2001] J132552.79-430546.36 GlC 13 25 52.730 -43 05 46.40 19.16 18.76 17.87 17.32 16.77 ~ 26 0
55 [VHH81] 22 GlC 13 25 53.680 -42 59 04.30 19.39 19.06 18.15 17.62 17.07 ~ 17 0
56 [KKF2001] J132554.59-425925.26 GlC 13 25 54.700 -42 59 22.30 18.92 18.29 17.22 16.62 15.95 ~ 29 0
57 [KKF2001] 220 GlC 13 26 05.440 -42 56 32.60 18.38 18.03 17.17 16.65 16.23 ~ 24 0
58 [HGH92] G 36 GlC 13 26 07.730 -42 52 00.30 19.42 19.19 18.35 17.81 17.33 ~ 24 0
59 [KKF2001] J132610.58-425342.78 GlC 13 26 10.580 -42 53 43.00 19.86 19.38 18.43 17.87 17.26 ~ 29 0
60 NGC 5139 GlC 13 26 47.28 -47 28 46.1   6.12 5.33     ~ 2996 0
61 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 6970 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.08-03:12:09

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