2013A&A...558A..78J


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.10.14CEST21:11:38

2013A&A...558A..78J - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 558A, 78-78 (2013/10-1)

The evolution of planetary nebulae. VIII. True expansion rates and visibility times.

JACOB R., SCHOENBERNER D. and STEFFEN M.

Abstract (from CDS):

The visibility time of planetary nebulae (PNe) in stellar systems is an essential quantity for estimating the size of a PN population in the context of general population studies. For instance, it enters directly into the PN death rate determination. The basic ingredient for determining visibility times is the typical nebular expansion velocity, as a suited average over all PN sizes of a PN population within a certain volume or stellar system. The true expansion speed of the outer nebular edge of a PN is, however, not accessible by spectroscopy - a difficulty that we surmount by radiation-hydrodynamics modelling. We first discuss the definition of the PN radius and possible differences between the observable PN radius and its physical counterpart, the position of the leading shock of the nebular shell. We also compare the Hα surface-brightness evolution predicted by our radiation-hydrodynamics models with the recent Hα surface-brightness radius calibration of Frew (2008, Ph.D. Thesis, Macquarie University, Australia) and find excellent agreement. We then carefully investigate the existing spectroscopic data on nebular expansion velocities for a local PN sample with objects up to a distance of 2kpc with well-defined round/elliptical shapes. We evaluate, by means of our radiation-hydrodynamics models, how these observed expansion velocities must be corrected in order to get the true expansion speed of the outer nebular edge. We find a mean true expansion velocity of 42km/s, i.e. nearly twice as high as the commonly adopted value to date. Accordingly, the time for a PN to expand to a radius of, say 0.9pc, is only 21000±5000 years. This visibility time of a PN holds for all central star masses since a nebula does not become extinct as the central star fades. There is, however, a dependence on metallicity in the sense that the visibility time becomes shorter for lower nebular metal content. These statements on the visibility time only hold for volume-limited samples. Extragalactic samples that contain spatially unresolved nebulae are flux limited, and in this case the visibility time directly depends on the limiting magnitude of the survey. To reach a visibility time of 21000 years, the survey must reach about 7 mag below the bright cut-off of the planetary nebula luminosity function. With the higher expansion rate of PNe derived here we determined their local death-rate density as (1.4±0.5)x10–12 PN/pc3/yr, using the local PN density advocated by Frew (2008, Ph.D. Thesis, Macquarie University, Australia).

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): hydrodynamics - circumstellar matter - planetary nebulae: general - white dwarfs

Simbad objects: 83

goto Full paper

goto View the reference in ADS

Number of rows : 83

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2019
#notes
1 NGC 40 PN 00 13 01.0170260109 +72 31 19.032886305   11.63 11.46     [WC8] 582 2
2 NGC 246 PN 00 47 03.3420803259 -11 52 18.975106178 10.15 11.52 11.76 12.18   PG1159 448 0
3 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9084 1
4 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5370 1
5 PN HFG 1 PN 03 03 47.0096103383 +64 54 35.516249865     14.56 13.99   ~ 94 0
6 PN HDW 2 PN 03 11 01.321 +62 47 45.06           ~ 28 0
7 NGC 1360 PN 03 33 14.6471964691 -25 52 17.981057073   10.95 11.16     sdO 265 0
8 NGC 1501 PN 04 06 59.3919688584 +60 55 14.277444117   15.17 13.0     [WO4] 276 1
9 NGC 1514 PN 04 09 16.9857297577 +30 46 33.469936956   10.01 9.48     sdO+A0/3III 312 2
10 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14317 1
11 IC 418 PN 05 27 28.2060343141 -12 41 50.282659007   9.78 13.0     O7fp 991 2
12 IC 2149 PN 05 56 23.9008985692 +46 06 17.206983220   11.21 11.35     O7.5 414 0
13 PN A66 13 PN 06 04 47.896 +03 56 35.76   20.06 19.87     ~ 58 0
14 PN PuWe 1 PN 06 19 33.9433415207 +55 36 43.907448608   15.291 15.545 15.662 15.792 DAO.5 76 1
15 NGC 2346 PN 07 09 22.5216571385 -00 48 23.611157830   11.76 11.58     A5V 547 0
16 NGC 2371 PN 07 25 34.6884571396 +29 29 26.430027683   14.48 13.5     Oe 347 0
17 PN A66 21 PN 07 29 02.7094421237 +13 14 48.589321539   15.67 15.99     DOZ 178 0
18 NGC 2438 PN 07 41 50.5198569363 -14 44 07.484261077           ~ 272 3
19 PN ARO 121 PN 07 57 51.6174582613 +53 25 16.943530806   16.775 17.128 17.288 17.501 DQ 150 1
20 NGC 2610 PN 08 33 23.4240567451 -16 08 57.798671301   9.02   11.23   ~ 173 0
21 PN A66 30 PN 08 46 53.4640384491 +17 52 46.368019418   14.23 14.30 13.47   [WC5] 373 0
22 PN A66 31 PN 08 54 13.1638085795 +08 53 52.939398458   15.201 15.544 15.693 15.831 DAO 118 0
23 NGC 2792 PN 09 12 26.561 -42 25 38.92     11.8     ~ 172 0
24 NGC 2899 PN 09 27 03.02 -56 06 21.1     12.40     G0 142 0
25 WRAY 17-31 PN 09 31 20.5250153864 -56 17 39.543169307   17.76 17.94     DAO 38 0
26 PN A66 33 PN 09 39 09.1416894235 -02 48 30.487554710   15.38 15.54     DAO 132 0
27 PN A66 34 PN 09 45 35.3372065958 -13 10 15.835669177   16.06 16.32     ~ 60 0
28 EGB 6 PN 09 52 58.9867703345 +13 44 34.624573201   15.692 15.999 16.137 16.300 DAO.5 80 0
29 NGC 3132 PN 10 07 01.7655812249 -40 26 11.138949314   10.14 10.01     A2V 366 1
30 NGC 3195 PN 10 09 20.910 -80 51 30.73           ~ 110 0
31 NGC 3211 PN 10 17 50.544 -62 40 12.10   19.4 11.50     ~ 176 0
32 NGC 3242 PN 10 24 46.1335198512 -18 38 32.294434711   11.83 12.15     ~ 790 1
33 M 97 PN 11 14 47.7125021184 +55 01 08.485325068   15.414 15.777 15.960 16.194 ~ 326 1
34 PN K 1-22 PN 11 26 43.7671247699 -34 22 11.178770560     17.4     ~ 64 0
35 NGC 3918 PN 11 50 17.7723407998 -57 10 57.059135256   10.0 8.5     ~ 359 0
36 V* GW Vir WD* 12 01 45.9728868858 -03 45 40.627851273   14.87 15.04     DOQZ1 458 0
37 NGC 4071 PN 12 04 14.7008784506 -67 18 36.459587192     14.00     ~ 85 0
38 NGC 4361 PN 12 24 30.7509091298 -18 47 05.564628299   12.8 13.2     [WC] 381 1
39 NGC 5189 PN 13 33 32.8779118130 -65 58 27.038960234   14.1 14.5   14.35 [WO1] 290 2
40 PN A66 36 PN 13 40 41.3452732644 -19 52 55.322455515   11.27 11.57     sdO7 152 0
41 NGC 5882 PN 15 16 49.9567882973 -45 38 58.610861335   11.9 10.9     ~ 260 0
42 PN Sp 1 PN 15 51 40.9511032767 -51 31 28.544655619   14.43 13.98 13.86   O(H)3-5(fc) 127 0
43 NGC 6026 PN 16 01 21.1234274123 -34 32 35.785457519   13.2 12.50     O7 100 0
44 IC 4593 PN 16 11 44.5480003321 +12 04 17.033164436   10.91 10.84     O7fp 432 0
45 PN A66 39 PN 16 27 33.7200850209 +27 54 33.472758646   15.27 15.60     DAO.70 114 0
46 NGC 6153 PN 16 31 30.5709136856 -40 15 12.646146874   10.7 15.55     ~ 281 0
47 NGC 6337 PN 17 22 15.6721752443 -38 29 01.735111388     12.00     wels 125 0
48 NGC 6369 PN 17 29 20.4566547788 -23 45 34.771598164   16.6 12.00     [WC4] 296 0
49 PN M 1-26 PN 17 45 57.6652777318 -30 12 00.874208077   12.89 12.08 12.00   [WR] 201 0
50 NGC 6445 PN 17 49 15.21 -20 00 34.5   18.9       ~ 284 0
51 NGC 6543 PN 17 58 33.4042519454 +66 37 58.748961810   11.09 11.28     [WC] 1107 1
52 NGC 6537 PN 18 05 13.104 -19 50 34.88     13.58     ~ 407 1
53 NGC 6563 PN 18 12 02.50 -33 52 07.0   11.7 10     ~ 172 1
54 NGC 6572 PN 18 12 06.3140077888 +06 51 13.030152295   9.3 10.8     [WC] 735 0
55 NGC 6567 PN 18 13 45.1634807418 -19 04 34.069059115     10.9     [WC5/6] 257 1
56 NGC 6629 PN 18 25 42.4541350714 -23 12 10.552870531   11.90 9.9     [WC5/6] 253 0
57 M 57 PN 18 53 35.0969571234 +33 01 44.883146221   15.405 15.769 15.901 16.062 DA(O?) 782 2
58 IC 1295 PN 18 54 37.1480527294 -08 49 37.421956548           DAO.56 87 1
59 NAME SDG G 18 55 03.1 -30 28 42   4.5 3.6     ~ 1637 2
60 PN A66 51 PN 19 01 01.3922011494 -18 12 15.320954210   15.30 15.42     O(H)3-5Vz 61 0
61 NGC 6751 PN 19 05 55.5385116189 -05 59 32.291075445   15.78 15.48     [WC4] 314 0
62 NGC 6772 PN 19 14 36.373 -02 42 25.04   17.01       ~ 142 0
63 PN A66 61 PN 19 19 10.2028390183 +46 14 51.974757707   17.05 17.39     DAO.57 46 0
64 NGC 6804 PN 19 31 35.1448763380 +09 13 31.299517404   13.4 13.4     ~ 205 1
65 PN A66 62 PN 19 33 17.693 +10 37 03.51           ~ 48 0
66 HD 184738 PN 19 34 45.2337512278 +30 30 58.951476338   10.41 10.44     [WC9] 913 0
67 NGC 6818 PN 19 43 58.022 -14 09 13.44     9.3     ~ 337 1
68 NGC 6826 PN 19 44 48.1500835472 +50 31 30.250916761   10.21 9.6     O6fp 693 0
69 M 27 PN 19 59 36.3632092274 +22 43 16.312364964   13.749 14.089 14.247 14.405 DAO.6 560 0
70 NGC 6894 PN 20 16 23.965 +30 33 53.17           ~ 192 0
71 NGC 6905 PN 20 22 22.9919829747 +20 06 16.284924395   16.3 14.5     [WC3] 327 0
72 NGC 7008 PN 21 00 32.7 +54 32 39     12.8     ~ 230 2
73 NGC 7009 PN 21 04 10.8153350719 -11 21 48.581808296   12.48 12.07     ~ 951 1
74 NGC 7027 PN 21 07 01.8 +42 14 10   9.1 10.9     ~ 2300 1
75 NGC 7048 PN 21 14 15.25 +46 17 16.1           ~ 124 1
76 NGC 7076 PN 21 26 23.540 +62 53 31.83           ~ 55 0
77 NGC 7094 PN 21 36 52.9688055651 +12 47 19.100520826     13.35     ~ 173 0
78 IC 5148 PN 21 59 35.0866715591 -39 23 08.237614320     16.5     O? 59 1
79 NGC 7293 PN 22 29 38.5453078023 -20 50 13.746093105 11.894 13.158 13.524 13.689 13.898 DAO.5 882 0
80 NGC 7354 PN 22 40 19.8738736066 +61 17 08.744408285           ~ 262 2
81 NGC 7662 PN 23 25 53.6 +42 32 06   9.4 12     ~ 906 0
82 PN Jn 1 PN 23 35 53.3216004369 +30 28 06.337286579   15.52 15.62     DOZ 91 0
83 PN A66 84 PN 23 47 44.0546435114 +51 23 57.159752078   18.366 18.584 18.613 18.671 ~ 54 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:objects in 2013A&A...558A..78J and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu


2019.10.14-21:11:38

© Université de Strasbourg/CNRS

    • Contact