2013A&A...560A..11C


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.16CEST20:05:55

2013A&A...560A..11C - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 560A, 11-11 (2013/12-1)

The circumstellar environment and evolutionary state of the supergiant B[e] star Wd 1-9.

CLARK J.S., RITCHIE B.W. and NEGUERUELA I.

Abstract (from CDS):

Historically, supergiant (sg)B[e] stars have been difficult to include in theoretical schemes for the evolution of massive OB stars. The location of Wd1-9 within the coeval starburst cluster Westerlund 1 means that it may be placed into a proper evolutionary context and we therefore aim to utilise a comprehensive multiwavelength dataset to determine its physical properties and consequently its relation to other sgB[e] stars and the global population of massive evolved stars within Wd1. Multi-epoch R- and I-band VLT/UVES and VLT/FORS2 spectra are used to constrain the properties of the circumstellar gas, while an ISO-SWS spectrum covering 2.45-45µm is used to investigate the distribution, geometry and composition of the dust via a semi-analytic irradiated disk model. Radio emission enables a long term mass-loss history to be determined, while X-ray observations reveal the physical nature of high energy processes within the system. Wd1-9 exhibits the rich optical emission line spectrum that is characteristic of sgB[e] stars. Likewise its mid-IR spectrum resembles those of the LMC sgB[e] stars R66 and 126, revealing the presence of equatorially concentrated silicate dust, with a mass of ∼10–4M. Extreme historical and ongoing mass loss (>10–4M/yr) is inferred from the radio observations. The X-ray properties of Wd1-9 imply the presence of high temperature plasma within the system and are directly comparable to a number of confirmed short-period colliding wind binaries within Wd1. The most complete explanation for the observational properties of Wd1-9 is that it is a massive interacting binary currently undergoing, or recently exited from, rapid Roche-lobe overflow, supporting the hypothesis that binarity mediates the formation of (a subset of) sgB[e] stars. The mass loss rate of Wd1-9 is consistent with such an assertion, while viable progenitor and descendent systems are present within Wd1 and comparable sgB[e] binaries have been identified in the Galaxy. Moreover, the rarity of sgB[e] stars - only two examples are identified from a census of ∼68 young massive Galactic clusters and associations containing ∼600 post-Main Sequence stars - is explicable given the rapidity (∼104yr) expected for this phase of massive binary evolution.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): binaries: close - circumstellar matter - stars: emission-line, Be

CDS comments: Table A.1 RSGC 6 not in SIMABD.

Simbad objects: 21

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Number of rows : 21

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 HD 37974 s*b 05 36 25.8537892343 -69 22 55.789283933 10.056 11.12 10.99 11.00 10.423 B0.5e 114 0
2 Cl Danks 1 OpC 13 12 27 -62 42.1           ~ 58 0
3 Cl Danks 2 OpC 13 12 55 -62 40.9           ~ 54 0
4 [MCM2005b] 81 OpC 16 40 29.60 -46 23 25.6           ~ 16 0
5 Cl Westerlund 1 OpC 16 47 04.00 -45 51 04.9           ~ 464 0
6 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 30 ** 16 47 04.11 -45 50 39.0   22.4 18.45 15.80 13.20 O+O 17 0
7 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 9 WR* 16 47 04.1422943113 -45 50 31.307461802   21.8 17.47 14.47 11.74 Be 46 0
8 WR 77n WR* 16 47 05.2111619515 -45 52 24.987049941   21.7 17.86 15.39 12.90 WC9d 23 0
9 WR 77o WR* 16 47 05.37 -45 51 04.7     20.99 17.50 14.37 WN7o 20 0
10 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 13 EB* 16 47 06.4536718776 -45 50 26.067083031   21.1 17.19 14.63 12.06 BIa+ 28 0
11 WR 77s WR* 16 47 08.3531944202 -45 50 45.405753222     19.69 16.59 13.68 WN7b 22 0
12 WR 98a WR* 17 41 13.0431655551 -30 32 30.425152324   18.40   15.20 13.82 WC8/9 88 1
13 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11552 0
14 NAME Arches Cluster Cl* 17 45 50.5 -28 49 28           ~ 630 0
15 NAME Quintuplet Cluster OpC 17 46 13.9 -28 49 48           ~ 443 0
16 WR 112 WR* 18 16 33.49 -18 58 42.3   20.7 17.7     WC8+O6/7III/V 117 0
17 V* RY Sct Be* 18 25 31.4772031860 -12 41 24.196044092 10.25 10.38 9.12 9.46   O9.7Ibep 284 1
18 [MCM2005b] 9 OpC 18 34 08 -09 14.0           ~ 13 0
19 NAME the Quartet OpC 18 36 17.0 -07 05 02           ~ 6 0
20 IRC +10420 pA* 19 26 48.0981288433 +11 21 16.756524951   13.98 11.66     F8Ia+e 453 0
21 Teutsch 42 OpC 19 30 13.1 +18 32 09           ~ 14 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.16-20:05:55

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