2013A&A...560A..26Z


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.09CEST06:46:36

2013A&A...560A..26Z - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 560A, 26-26 (2013/12-1)

The metals-to-dust ratio to very low metallicities using GRB and QSO absorbers: extremely rapid dust formation.

ZAFAR T. and WATSON D.

Abstract (from CDS):

Among the key parameters defining the interstellar media (ISM) of galaxies is the fraction of the metals that are locked up in dust: the metals-to-dust ratio. This ratio bears not only on the ISM and its evolution, but also particularly on the origin of cosmic dust. We combine extinction and abundance data from γ-ray burst (GRB) afterglows with similar data from quasar (QSO) foreground absorbers, as well as from multiply-imaged galaxy-lensed QSOs, to determine the metals-to-dust ratios for lines of sight through a wide diversity of galaxies from blue, dwarf starbursts to massive ellipticals, across a vast range of redshifts z=0.1-6.3, and nearly three orders of magnitude of column density and metal abundance. The GRB and lensed QSO extinction methods are the most reliable that are available outside the Local Group (LG), allowing absolute extinction measurements. We thus determine the metals-to-dust ratio in a unique way, providing direct determinations of in situ gas and dust columns without recourse to assumptions with large uncertainties. We find that the metals-to-dust ratios in these systems are surprisingly close to the value for the LG, with a mean value of 1021.2cm–2AVmag–1 and a standard deviation of 0.3dex, compared to the Galactic value of 1021.3cm–2AVmag–1 (in units of the Galactic gas-to-dust ratio). There is no evidence of deviation from this mean ratio as a function of metallicity, even down to our lowest metallicity of 0.01Z/Z. The lack of any obvious dependence of the metals-to-dust ratio on column density, galaxy type or age, redshift, or metallicity indicates a close correspondence between the formation of the metals and the formation of dust. Any delay between the formation of metals and dust must be shorter than the typical metal-enrichment times of these galaxies, i.e. shorter than a few Myr. Formation of the bulk of the dust in low mass stars is therefore ruled out by these data at any cosmic epoch. Furthermore, dust destruction must not dominate over formation/growth in virtually any galaxy environment. The close correlation between metals and dust is a natural consequence of the formation of the bulk of cosmic dust in supernovae. Grain growth in the ISM, if it is to be the dominant cosmic dust formation mechanism, is strongly constrained by these data to operate on very short timescales.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: high-redshift - dust, extinction - gamma rays: general - quasars: general

Simbad objects: 54

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Number of rows : 54

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 LBQS 0010-0012 QSO 00 13 06.1513833715 +00 04 31.945146837   19.29 19.05     ~ 85 0
2 LBQS 0013-0029 QSO 00 16 02.4050445836 -00 12 25.076529860   18.67 18.36     ~ 175 0
3 GRB 071031 gB 00 25 37.40 -58 03 33.9           ~ 142 0
4 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10903 1
5 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9441 1
6 GRB 050904 gB 00 54 50.794 +14 05 09.42           ~ 431 1
7 QSO J0121+0027 QSO 01 21 47.7353362993 +00 27 18.721789696   20.33 19.85     ~ 34 1
8 GRB 070802 gB 02 27 35.91 -55 31 39.1           ~ 136 0
9 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5665 1
10 4C 05.19 QSO 04 14 37.76781859 +05 34 42.3354282   24.100 23.800 21.270   ~ 330 2
11 SDSS J081634.38+144612.4 QSO 08 16 34.3910998278 +14 46 12.475883677   21.91 20.39     ~ 33 0
12 QSO B0909+5312 QSO 09 13 01.031 +52 59 28.90   17.29 16.71     ~ 131 1
13 QSO J0918+1636 QSO 09 18 26.1649965997 +16 36 09.020318645   21.19 20.58     ~ 36 0
14 GRB 050505 gB 09 27 03.300 +30 16 23.70     20.74     ~ 170 1
15 Mrk 116 PaG 09 34 02.1 +55 14 25           ~ 997 1
16 QSO J0938+4128 QSO 09 38 57.0177885802 +41 28 21.215479818   16.94 16.75     ~ 125 1
17 QSO B0945+4337 QSO 09 48 35.9614505438 +43 23 02.598710338   18.54 18.37     ~ 48 0
18 GRB 061121 gB 09 48 54.570 -13 11 42.68 17.19 17.71 17.02     ~ 287 0
19 2QZ J101018.2+000350 QSO 10 10 18.1900018291 +00 03 51.270617654   18.80 18.54     ~ 41 0
20 GRB 100219A gB 10 16 48.46 -12 34 00.2           ~ 90 0
21 QSO J1107+0048 QSO 11 07 29.0356028831 +00 48 11.290138100   17.89 17.54     ~ 50 0
22 GRB 030226 gB 11 33 04.9 +25 53 56           ~ 186 2
23 [VV2000] J115518.3+193942 QSO 11 55 18.3 +19 39 42   17.15 16.89     ~ 85 2
24 [VV2006] J115705.6+615521 QSO 11 57 05.5205467480 +61 55 21.769163048   21.26 20.40     ~ 23 0
25 QSO B1157+014 QSO 11 59 44.8277890111 +01 12 06.984367162   17.87 17.52     ~ 199 1
26 4C -02.55 QSO 12 32 00.0157879377 -02 24 04.790684994   17.41 17.06 16.4   ~ 378 1
27 SDSS J123714.61+064759.6 QSO 12 37 14.6101756939 +06 47 59.610269423   19.66 19.15     ~ 48 0
28 GRB 090323 gB 12 42 50.28 +17 03 11.9           ~ 183 1
29 GRB 080607 gB 12 59 47.14 +15 55 09.6           ~ 209 0
30 LBQS 1320-0006 QSO 13 23 23.7865596488 -00 21 55.237045525   18.70 18.22     ~ 75 0
31 GRB 060206 gB 13 31 43.420 +35 03 03.60   19.99 17.09     ~ 282 1
32 GRB 050730 gB 14 08 17.090 -03 46 18.90   20.32 17.68     ~ 282 1
33 QSO J1501+0019 QSO 15 01 23.4540009936 +00 19 40.045038664   18.28 18.12     ~ 38 0
34 GRB 060526 gB 15 31 18.360 +00 17 04.90   18.31 17.16     ~ 233 0
35 QSO B1600+4344 QSO 16 01 40.4818 +43 16 47.394   22.12 21.92     ~ 176 1
36 GRB 050401 gB 16 31 28.84 +02 11 14.5           ~ 302 0
37 GRB 080210 gB 16 45 04.03 +13 49 36.3           ~ 92 0
38 GRB 000926 gB 17 04 15 +51 46.0           ~ 341 2
39 GRB 080319C gB 17 15 55.48 +55 23 31.7           ~ 137 0
40 GRB 080605 gB 17 28 30.04 +04 00 56.9           ~ 153 0
41 QSO B1830-211 QSO 18 33 39.92 -21 03 39.9     18.70 21   ~ 549 6
42 GRB 081008 gB 18 39 52.40 -57 25 58.8           ~ 156 0
43 GRB 080413A gB 19 09 11.73 -27 40 39.6           ~ 123 0
44 GRB 080905B gB 20 06 57.90 -62 33 46.4           ~ 80 0
45 GRB 050922C gB 21 09 33.000 -08 45 30.10 15.15 15.86 14.69     ~ 250 0
46 GRB 080413B gB 21 44 34.62 -19 58 51.2           ~ 148 0
47 GRB 050820A gB 22 29 38.110 +19 33 37.10 18.33 19.00 18.47     ~ 338 1
48 LBQS 2230-0015 QSO 22 34 08.9971883754 +00 00 01.695912538   18.09 17.39 17.3   ~ 110 0
49 QSO J2240+0321 QSO 22 40 30.234 +03 21 30.63           ~ 638 0
50 Z 378-15 G 22 40 30.23447 +03 21 30.6290           ~ 629 0
51 GRB 070506 gB 23 08 52.390 +10 43 20.30     19.04     ~ 70 0
52 GRB 090926A gB 23 33 36.18 -66 19 25.9           ~ 250 0
53 QSO J2340-0053 QSO 23 40 23.6702895509 -00 53 26.997605159   18.26 17.93     ~ 78 0
54 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 6971 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.09-06:46:36

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