2014A&A...566A..34K


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.21CET23:48:00

2014A&A...566A..34K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 566A, 34-34 (2014/6-1)

The frequency of planetary debris around young white dwarfs.

KOESTER D., GAENSICKE B.T. and FARIHI J.

Abstract (from CDS):

Heavy metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are thought in many cases to be accreted from a circumstellar debris disk, which was formed by the tidal disruption of a rocky planetary body within the Roche radius of the star. The abundance analysis of photospheric elements and conclusions about the chemical composition of the accreted matter are a new and promising method of studying the composition of extrasolar planetary systems. However, ground-based searches for metal-polluted white dwarfs that rely primarily on the detection of the CaII K line become insensitive at Teff>15000K because this ionization state depopulates. We present the results of the first unbiased survey for metal pollution among hydrogen-atmosphere (DA type) white dwarfs with cooling ages in the range 20-200Myr and 17000K<Teff<27000K. The sample was observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope in the far ultraviolet range between 1130 and 1435Å. The atmospheric parameters were obtained using these spectra and optical observations from the literature. Element abundances were determined using theoretical models, which include the effects of element stratification due to gravitational settling and radiative levitation. We find 48 of the 85 DA white dwarfs studied, or 56% show traces of heavy elements. In 25 stars (showing only Si and occasionally C), the elements can be explained by radiative levitation alone, although we argue that accretion has very likely occurred recently. The remaining 23 white dwarfs (27%), however, must be currently accreting. Together with previous studies from the ground and adopting bulk Earth abundances for the debris, accretion rates range from a few 105g/s to a few 108g/s, with no evident trend in cooling age from ≃40Myr to ≃2Gyr. Only a single, modest case of metal pollution ({dot}(M)<106g/s) is found among ten white dwarfs with Teff>23000K, in excellent agreement with the absence of infrared excess from dust around these warmer stars. The median, main sequence progenitor of our sample corresponds to an A-type star of ≃2M, and we find 13 of 23 white dwarfs descending from main sequence 2-3M, late B- and A-type stars to be currently accreting. Only one of 14 targets with Mwd>0.8M is found to be currently accreting, which suggests a large fraction of these stars result from double-degenerate mergers, and the merger disks do not commonly reform large planetesimals or otherwise pollute the remnant. We reconfirm our previous finding that two 625Myr Hyades white dwarfs are currently accreting rocky planetary debris. At least 27% of all white dwarfs with cooling ages 20-200Myr are accreting planetary debris, but that fraction could be as high as ≃50%. At Teff>23000K, the luminosity of white dwarfs is probably sufficient to vaporize circumstellar dust grains, so no stars with strong metal-pollution are found. Planetesimal disruption events should occur in this cooling age and temperature range as well, and they are likely to result in short phases of high mass-transfer rates. It appears that the formation of rocky planetary material is common around 2-3M late B- and A-type stars.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): white dwarfs - stars: atmospheres - stars: abundances - circumstellar matter - planetary systems

Simbad objects: 95

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Number of rows : 95

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 Ton S 134 WD* 00 02 32.3603300376 -32 11 47.873265123   16.2 15.87 16.1   DA2 14 0
2 PG 0000+172 WD* 00 02 34.9062726120 +17 27 19.860261356   15.80 15.8     DA2.4 17 0
3 Ton S 147 WD* 00 16 12.6227331075 -23 50 06.414185026   15.33 15.38 15.4   DA2.6 25 0
4 GD 603 WD* 00 21 12.8961360736 -33 42 27.407148246   15.0 14.7 14.6   DA2.2 27 0
5 JL 192 WD* 00 30 47.1737862186 -47 12 36.367140127   14.7   14.9   DA2.8 14 0
6 WG 2 WD* 00 50 03.6494717240 -52 08 15.515729263 13.354 14.157 14.206 14.31 14.428 DA2.7 72 0
7 PG 0059+258 WD* 01 01 45.7599372298 +26 02 42.696574930   15.33 15.69     DA2.2 17 0
8 PG 0102+096 WD* 01 04 41.3012522455 +09 49 42.383743957   13.8 14.1     DA2.0 27 0
9 BPS CS 22953-0018 WD* 01 16 19.5810304212 -60 16 07.415225394     15.1 14.9   DA 12 0
10 Ton S 216 WD* 01 26 55.9100183624 -25 30 52.801458706   15.8 15.66 16.2   DA2.0 22 0
11 SB 702 WD* 01 42 51.0163360552 -38 59 06.760280967   14.3 14.4 23.7   DA2.1 21 0
12 Feige 17 WD* 01 57 41.1531009941 +07 12 05.558333777   15.1 15.22 15.3   DA2.2 32 0
13 HS 0200+2449 WD* 02 03 45.7859687443 +25 04 09.275320877   15.6   15.6   DA 6 0
14 BPS CS 22189-0019 WD* 02 45 02.3740368760 -17 12 20.405310702 14.33 15.25 15.54 14.9   DA2.3 16 0
15 PG 0307+149 WD* 03 09 53.9528741438 +15 05 21.828648558   14.72   15.2   DA2.3 15 0
16 HE 0308-2305 WD* 03 11 07.1343183985 -22 54 05.265773975   15.01 15.08 15.45   DA 9 0
17 PG 0308+188 WD* 03 11 49.2114643225 +19 00 55.620149729   13.86 14.46 14.2   DA2.7 19 0
18 KUV 03416+0206 WD* 03 44 10.7536775407 +02 15 29.754000242   15.5 15.8 15.3   DA2.2 15 0
19 KUV 03521+0150 WD* 03 54 43.4719770091 +01 58 41.342283687   15.3 15.2 15.4   DA2.2 15 0
20 HE 0358-5127 WD* 03 59 38.1854966605 -51 18 39.834330285 14.70 15.68 15.72 16.07   DA 13 0
21 HE 0403-4129 WD* 04 05 30.0898749041 -41 21 09.106581041     16.1     DA 11 0
22 HE 0414-4039 WD* 04 16 02.9699127699 -40 32 12.436883759 15.13 16.02 16.09 16.2   DA 8 0
23 HE 0416-1034 WD* 04 18 47.8752174871 -10 27 08.528729460   15.30 15.37 15.76   DA 9 0
24 HE 0418-1021 WD* 04 21 12.0206264165 -10 14 08.161940283   15.67 15.68 15.9   DA 8 0
25 LAWD 18 WD* 04 23 55.6975604110 +16 21 15.120816077   14.33 14.27 14.79   DA2.5 91 0
26 Cl Melotte 25 OpC 04 26 54.00 +15 52 00.0           ~ 2586 0
27 HZ 7 WD* 04 33 44.9627317246 +12 42 40.356206632   14.15 14.24 14.49   DA2.3 106 0
28 NAME LIC Cld 04 41 +31.           ~ 245 0
29 HE 0452-3444 WD* 04 54 23.7056565025 -34 39 48.350260397 15.06 15.91 16.04 15.79 16.34 DA 10 0
30 HS 0507+0434A WD* 05 10 13.9441055186 +04 38 38.433188110   14.14 14.22 14.46   DA4.1 19 0
31 V* HR Cam WD* 07 17 09.7856980174 +74 00 40.533860068   14.91 14.97     DA2.6 63 0
32 PG 0843+517 WD* 08 47 02.2881303017 +51 28 53.350316266   15.90       DA2.0 43 1
33 GD 98 WD* 08 57 30.4540658822 +40 16 13.039131927 13.766 14.697 14.823 14.935 15.056 DA2.2 38 0
34 Ton 1054 WD* 09 23 57.2002025328 +36 08 38.289215395   16.9 16.05 16.6   DA2.0 24 0
35 PG 0933+026 ** 09 35 40.708752 +02 21 59.71608   16.07 15.92 15.18   DA2+dM 23 0
36 HS 0944+1913 WD* 09 47 31.6609203258 +18 59 12.718322180   14.56 14.51 14.78   DA 12 0
37 Ton 458 WD* 09 50 49.5041562514 +32 19 41.197528550   15.35 15.50 15.80   DA2.2 26 0
38 PG 0954+697 WD* 09 58 30.8111860570 +69 28 59.007513587   15.87 15.96 16.0   DA2.2 25 0
39 GD 462 WD* 10 09 36.3648400867 +63 58 37.352477906   13.5 14.2     DA2.4 29 0
40 Ton 494 WD* 10 16 16.9460649315 +25 24 56.752681320   15.4       DA2.2 16 0
41 PG 1015+161 WD* 10 18 03.8271425956 +15 51 58.565078247   15.70   15.2   DA2.5 54 0
42 PG 1017+125 WD* 10 19 55.9112530600 +12 16 31.530306045   15.81   15.7   DA2.2 26 0
43 GD 304 WD* 10 37 43.4672531657 +48 57 20.753490544   15.5       DA2.4 32 0
44 PG 1038+634 WD* 10 41 57.2390318427 +63 07 01.671632008   15.49 15.3     DA2.0 33 0
45 HE 1049-1552 WD* 10 52 20.5328561073 -16 08 04.183029266   14.32 14.59 14.0   DA2.5 15 0
46 PG 1049+103 WD* 10 52 27.74736 +10 03 38.1528   15.83 15.81 15.3   DA3+dM 25 0
47 Ton 556 WD* 10 54 43.3166610277 +27 06 57.039374181   14.04 14.22 14.60 14.43 DA2.1 49 0
48 PG 1058-129 WD* 11 01 12.2407212447 -13 14 42.227595902   15.11 14.93 14.8   DA2.0 22 0
49 GD 466 WD* 11 05 56.1786754919 +74 36 39.583028705   15.14   15.23 15.22 DA2.4 28 0
50 EGGR 75 WD* 11 07 42.7742868443 +59 58 29.658141259   13.78   13.7   DA2.7 50 0
51 Feige 44 WD* 11 32 27.3588194737 +15 17 30.812525028   14.03 14.26 14.5   DA2.8 31 0
52 Feige 45 WD* 11 36 14.0147365304 +29 01 30.204553983   14.9 14.87     DA2.1 32 0
53 SDSS J122859.92+104033.0 WD* 12 28 59.9338108888 +10 40 33.043893470           DAZe: 77 0
54 PG 1229-013 WD* 12 31 34.5018439039 -01 32 08.522496654   14.44 13.79 14.5   DA2.5 31 0
55 EC 12303-3052 WD* 12 33 00.5999458872 -31 08 36.228750671   15.71 15.81     DA2.0 14 0
56 UM 517 WD* 12 45 38.6461350384 +01 16 17.833327755   16   16.6   DA 10 0
57 GD 267 WD* 12 59 50.3510747196 +04 31 26.416603279   14.96 15.05     DA2.2 30 0
58 EC 13109-3035 WD* 13 13 41.5799285761 -30 51 33.710901920   14.43 14.92 14.5   DA2.4 16 0
59 Ton 162 WD* 13 27 49.5488480769 +27 43 56.887917267   15.97 15.97 16.10   DA2.2 15 0
60 HE 1325-0854 WD* 13 28 23.9169332981 -09 09 52.979046930   15.2   15.1   DA 10 0
61 PG 1330+473 WD* 13 32 36.0392058195 +47 04 10.708878448   15.23 15.23 15.64   DA2.2 23 0
62 PG 1353+409 WD* 13 55 56.7078325245 +40 40 55.089796299   15.41 15.55     DA2.1 37 0
63 GD 163 WD* 14 10 26.9532829846 +32 08 35.848482257   13.96   14.3   DA2.6 51 0
64 [MMN2007] A1 gLS 14 17 35.9 +52 26 46     21.53   19.69 ~ 76 0
65 GD 173 WD* 14 53 50.3858164838 +00 25 31.022591615   15.15   15.7   DA1.9 50 0
66 PG 1459+347 WD* 15 01 41.1634539481 +34 31 58.759714995   15.64 15.77     DA2.3 29 0
67 LAWD 58 WD* 15 30 35.8259776064 -75 05 22.453873107   15.69 15.99 16.16 15.99 DA2.0 25 0
68 GD 185 WD* 15 34 05.9997006385 -02 27 08.260348585   14.03 14.03 13.9   DA2.6 50 0
69 PG 1547+057 WD* 15 49 34.7912593962 +05 35 17.099928181   15.57   16.0   DA1.9 22 0
70 PG 1548+149 WD* 15 51 15.4169398298 +14 46 59.257685150   14.95   15.2   DA2.4 23 0
71 SDSS J155720.78+091624.7 WD* 15 57 20.7787310291 +09 16 24.783789093           DAZ 26 0
72 PG 1633+677 WD* 16 33 07.9354166906 +67 33 30.190786929   16.6   16.4   DA2.1 15 0
73 PG 1647+376 WD* 16 49 20.2993955424 +37 28 21.248151942   14.90 14.98     DA2.2 37 0
74 Wolf 665 WD* 17 15 34.8628491650 +33 13 03.893935756   14.43   14.7   DA2.2 60 0
75 GD 370 WD* 17 57 38.9257720097 +19 24 17.604048934   15.89 15.99 15.73   DA2.0 16 0
76 BPS CS 22891-0122 WD* 19 18 44.8309239224 -59 46 33.863241614 13.59 14.34 14.39 14.4   DA2.4 16 0
77 GALEX J193156.8+011745 WD* 19 31 56.9315446731 +01 17 44.111042748     14.20     DAZ 41 1
78 EGGR 134 WD* 19 45 31.7609437281 +16 27 38.767682437   13.96   14.4   DA2.5 48 0
79 WG 50 WD* 19 58 38.6470314580 -71 23 43.504464184 14.25 15.12 15.14     DA2.5 24 0
80 BPS CS 22950-0122 WD* 20 24 42.8900220016 -12 41 49.883537040     15.2     DA2.3 14 0
81 GD 231 WD* 20 35 13.8114634080 +18 59 21.701796029   15.30 15.34 16.2   DA2.6 44 1
82 BPS CS 22880-0124 WD* 20 49 46.2478374114 -21 54 43.411589392 14.37 15.32 15.48 15.3   DA2.1 14 0
83 GD 232 WD* 21 01 16.4968560306 +18 20 55.293656587   15.01 15.00 15.5   DA2.8 24 0
84 GD 394 WD* 21 12 44.0369554327 +50 06 17.887384602 11.70 12.85 13.09     DA1.3 165 1
85 GD 234 WD* 21 36 36.1246197722 +22 04 33.344469418   14.41 14.45 14.8   DA2.6 29 0
86 HS 2210+2323 WD* 22 12 53.5042545355 +23 38 00.273266574   16.1   15.8   DA 9 0
87 PG 2220+134 WD* 22 23 13.8475509021 +13 38 56.867110740   15.54 15.61 16.09   DA2.1 25 0
88 HS 2229+2335 WD* 22 31 45.4682773516 +23 51 23.360462985   16.02 16.01 16.37   DAZ 17 0
89 PHL 316 WD* 22 34 02.6317933655 -26 32 20.980886759   14.95 14.98 15.38   DA 10 0
90 HE 2238-0433 WD* 22 41 04.9394617554 -04 18 09.132283583   17.3   17.0   DA 6 0
91 HS 2244+2103 WD* 22 46 45.2629752520 +21 19 47.133419121   16.6   16.4   DA 7 0
92 GD 245 No* 22 58 48.1351298257 +25 15 43.908160444   13.72 13.37     DA2.2 60 0
93 PG 2257+162 WD* 22 59 46.8549735079 +16 29 16.946063604   16.00 16.14 16.0   DA2.0 25 0
94 PG 2306+125 WD* 23 08 34.9890507698 +12 45 40.280161934   15.23 15.23 15.2   DA2.4 27 0
95 EGGR 556 WD* 23 25 18.4078667465 -17 51 57.871343307   15.1 16.1     DA2.2 19 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.11.21-23:48:01

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