2014A&A...570A..38B


Query : 2014A&A...570A..38B

2014A&A...570A..38B - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 570A, 38-38 (2014/10-1)

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVII. Physical and wind properties of massive stars at the top of the main sequence.

BESTENLEHNER J.M., GRAEFENER G., VINK J.S., NAJARRO F., DE KOTER A., SANA H., EVANS C.J., CROWTHER P.A., HENAULT-BRUNET V., HERRERO A., LANGER N., SCHNEIDER F.R.N., SIMON-DIAZ S., TAYLOR W.D. and WALBORN N.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant HII regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O star winds to denser WNh Wolf-Rayet star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain both stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between optically thin O star winds and optically thick hydrogen-rich WNh Wolf-Rayet winds. Our results suggest the existence of a ``kink'' between both mass-loss regimes, in agreement with recent Monte Carlo simulations. For the optically thick regime, we confirm the steep dependence on the classical Eddington factor Γe from previous theoretical and observational studies. The transition occurs on the main sequence near a luminosity of 106.1L, or a mass of 80...90M. Above this limit, we find that - even when accounting for moderate wind clumping (with fv=0.1) - wind mass-loss rates are enhanced with respect to standard prescriptions currently adopted in stellar evolution calculations. We also show that this results in substantial helium surface enrichment. Finally, based on our spectroscopic analyses, we are able to provide the most accurate ionising fluxes for VMS known to date, confirming the pivotal role of VMS in ionising and shaping their environments.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: Wolf-Rayet - stars: early-type - stars: atmospheres - stars: mass-loss - stars: fundamental parameters

Simbad objects: 93

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Number of rows : 93
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 7179 0
2 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 17643 0
3 2MASS J05370888-6907203 * 05 37 08.8778548584 -69 07 20.375080464 12.623 13.584 13.546   13.816 O2IIIf* 45 0
4 OGLE LMC-ECL-20909 SB* 05 37 30.8750285400 -69 11 48.474490488   14.23 14.4 14.16 14.022 O5III(n)(fc)+sec 12 0
5 [ST92] 1-12 SB* 05 37 30.9164613960 -69 11 06.996589512 14.193 14.840 14.621 14.49 13.915 O7.5II(f) 14 0
6 BI 253 * 05 37 34.4595697440 -69 01 10.178659452 12.765 13.650 13.669   13.742 O2V(f*) 49 0
7 [ST92] 1-28 LP* 05 37 37.9620597480 -69 10 14.736356688 13.515 14.211 14.161   13.713 O3.5Inf*p+sec? 16 0
8 HD 269883 WR* 05 37 40.4906298216 -69 07 57.672227892 13.454 14.184 14.077 14.03 13.492 WN7h 47 0
9 VFTS 145 SB* 05 37 46.080 -69 09 08.85   14.49 14.30     O8fp 8 0
10 Brey 73 WR* 05 37 46.3440 -69 09 09.360   12.222 12.11     WN6(h) 38 1
11 VFTS 151 SB* 05 37 46.520 -69 09 08.79           O6.5II(f)p 11 0
12 [M2002] LMC 169366 * 05 37 49.9179515328 -69 10 27.881673348 13.649 14.619 14.437   14.224 O2.5V(n)((f*)) 14 0
13 UCAC2 1803283 SB* 05 37 50.0080933152 -69 09 59.844759264 13.096 13.699 13.840 14.11 13.900 O7-8III((f)) 13 0
14 Brey 74a WR* 05 37 51.3386549880 -69 09 46.690186716 12.483 13.474 13.446 13.62 13.278 O3If* 36 0
15 [ST92] 1-93 SB* 05 37 56.2196557176 -69 11 50.770677732 14.388 15.069 14.798 14.72 14.239 O6Iafnp 13 0
16 UCAC2 1803316 * 05 37 59.0526663864 -69 11 56.710162752 13.935 14.655 14.389 14.49 14.035 O4V((fc)) 11 0
17 VFTS 259 s*b 05 38 12.0226241304 -69 06 34.169386572   13.86 13.65     O6Iaf 10 0
18 2MASS J05381396-6907477 SB* 05 38 13.9613816664 -69 07 47.728274376   13.44 13.49     O3III-I(n)f* 15 0
19 RMC 133 SB* 05 38 23.7090122184 -69 05 03.562237032   12.43 12.49     O7/8II 29 0
20 RMC 135 WR* 05 38 33.6193296576 -69 04 50.510501688   12.63 13.48     WN7h+OB 60 0
21 2MASS J05383381-6909569 SB* 05 38 33.8293150320 -69 09 57.071648844   14.16 14.14     O3.5V(n)((fc)) 7 0
22 Cl* NGC 2070 MEL 55 * 05 38 33.9752868864 -69 04 21.233349732 13.198 14.245 14.274   13.858 O6Vnn 13 0
23 Cl* NGC 2070 SMB 140 SB* 05 38 35.9954763336 -69 06 16.948926828   15.38 15.14   14.58 O4III(f) 9 0
24 NAME 30 Dor Nebula SFR 05 38 36.0 -69 05 11           ~ 1197 2
25 Brey 81 WR* 05 38 36.4071127800 -69 06 57.534295248   14.02 13.76   12.80 WN8 34 0
26 Cl* NGC 2070 MEL 47 SB* 05 38 37.718 -69 05 20.97 11.913 12.764 12.046   12.344 O6-6.5II(f) 20 0
27 Cl* NGC 2070 SMB 97 SB* 05 38 37.93 -69 05 42.9   14.85 14.75   14.69 O3-4V:((fc)):+O4-7V:((fc)): 13 0
28 OGLE LMC175.3 24041 SB* 05 38 38.75 -69 06 13.1   14.99 14.84   14.549 O5:V:n 17 0
29 BAT99 97 WR* 05 38 38.8401788208 -69 06 49.549699584   14.23 13.74   13.20 O3.5If*/WN7 29 0
30 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 17 * 05 38 39.3750 -69 06 06.312   14.63 14.59   13.92 O2V((f*))+OB 22 0
31 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 57 * 05 38 40.2160044288 -69 05 59.915264352   12.97 13.0   12.91 O3If*/WN6-A 37 1
32 Brey 78 WR* 05 38 40.2960 -69 05 59.640           O2.5If*/WN6 39 0
33 Brey 75 WR* 05 38 40.53 -69 05 57.2   12.84 12.75   12.34 WN6h 62 0
34 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 203 * 05 38 41.515 -69 06 00.83   14.28 13.67     O3V 11 0
35 Cl* NGC 2070 MEL 25 SB* 05 38 41.5495267078 -69 05 19.506347564   13.33 13.31   13.36 ON2V((n))((f*)) 26 0
36 RMC 140 WR* 05 38 41.61576 -69 05 13.9632   11.213 11.149 11.792   WN7+WC4/5pec 80 0
37 RMC 140b WR* 05 38 41.6202115352 -69 05 15.192382434   12.61 12.66   12.54 WN6 31 0
38 Cl* NGC 2070 SMB 68 SB* 05 38 41.750 -69 06 24.94   14.48 14.28   13.89 O2V-III((f*)) 18 0
39 Cl* NGC 2070 SMB 88 * 05 38 41.88 -69 06 14.4   14.77 14.50   14.82 ~ 18 1
40 Brey 76 WR* 05 38 41.8800 -69 06 13.680     12.5     O2If*/WN5 33 1
41 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 290 * 05 38 41.887 -69 06 12.45   14.62 14.34   14.15 O2-4.5 11 0
42 Cl* NGC 2070 SMB 138 SB* 05 38 41.940 -69 06 29.62   15.38 15.11   14.69 O3.5III(f*) 16 0
43 Cl* NGC 2070 SMB 25 * 05 38 42.068 -69 06 14.19   13.52 13.31   13.09 ~ 7 0
44 Brey 77 WR* 05 38 42.1044150840 -69 05 55.335965424     12.86   12.79 O2If* 80 0
45 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 339 * 05 38 42.22 -69 06 14.4   13.48 13.37     O4 12 1
46 BAT99 106 WR* 05 38 42.338 -69 06 03.21   12.83 12.93     WN5h 68 0
47 RMC 139 WR* 05 38 42.3537501576 -69 04 58.196699796   12.04 11.94     O6.5Iafc+O6Iaf 94 0
48 RMC 136 Cl* 05 38 42.396 -69 06 03.36   5.81 5.40     ~ 2038 2
49 BAT99 108 WR* 05 38 42.396 -69 06 02.87   12.78 12.77     WN5h 86 0
50 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 493 * 05 38 42.407 -69 06 15.01   13.69 13.44   13.07 ~ 7 0
51 OGLE LMC-ECL-21440 SB* 05 38 42.66 -69 06 35.8   14.96 14.76   14.447 O3V(n)((f*))z+OB 19 0
52 BAT99 111 WR* 05 38 42.745 -69 06 03.70   13.51 13.66     WN9ha 49 0
53 BAT99 112 WR* 05 38 42.9162 -69 06 04.938   12.95 12.86     WN5h 60 0
54 VFTS 1025 * 05 38 42.935 -69 06 04.98           ~ 11 0
55 MH 12 SB* 05 38 43.026 -69 04 13.15   13.96 13.99     ON9Ia:+O7.5:I:(f): 18 0
56 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 716 * 05 38 43.0737 -69 06 11.255   14.40 14.26   14.10 O2-4.5 22 0
57 BAT99 113 WR* 05 38 43.0917715292 -69 05 46.903118899   13.56 13.47   13.44 O2If*/WN5 45 0
58 BAT99 114 WR* 05 38 43.20 -69 06 14.6   13.52 13.40   13.31 O2If*/WN5 37 0
59 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 749 * 05 38 43.2715 -69 06 16.529   13.86 13.82   13.78 O3.5-4.5 21 0
60 Cl* NGC 2070 MEL 26 * 05 38 44.4177 -69 05 36.154   13.75 13.66   13.59 O4III(f) 16 0
61 MH 31 * 05 38 44.5650276384 -69 04 51.259890828   14.11 14.05     O3III(f*) 23 0
62 W61 7-7 SB* 05 38 46.1994 -69 06 16.007   13.88 13.80   13.73 O3III(f*) 23 0
63 Cl* NGC 2070 MEL 10 SB* 05 38 46.5347000352 -69 04 28.044565608   14.03 13.99     O4III(fc) 16 0
64 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 999 SB* 05 38 46.7865227544 -69 06 03.188070828   14.38 14.22   14.03 O4III(f) 24 0
65 HD 269926 WR* 05 38 47.5179121824 -69 00 25.287752196 11.953 12.974 13.116 13.16 12.926 WN4+OB 70 0
66 NAME Walborn 2 ** 05 38 48.1018 -69 04 42.239   15.66 15.39     O2V((f*))z 28 0
67 W61 7-9 * 05 38 48.1964871552 -69 08 10.916344176 14.384 15.051 15.197   14.490 O5-6n(f)p 14 0
68 W61 7-19 * 05 38 52.7246801448 -69 06 43.267945464 13.481 14.132 13.937   13.702 O7II(f) 22 0
69 W61 7-18 SB* 05 38 52.9704587472 -69 07 45.406012188 13.795 14.467 14.242   13.848 O8Ib(f) 16 0
70 UCAC4 105-014417 WR* 05 38 55.5222410976 -69 04 26.809579344   16.66 16.08   14.89 WN5h 61 0
71 HD 269928 WR* 05 38 57.0667692816 -69 06 05.660419140   12.02 11.94 12.00 11.58 WN6/7 134 0
72 W61 3-8 WR* 05 38 58.0963884840 -69 29 19.558532292       12.51 12.43 WN9h 53 0
73 SSTISAGEMC J053910.91-690613.2 * 05 39 10.9163642088 -69 06 13.739103756 14.314 15.101 15.011   14.676 O3Vn((f*)) 12 0
74 HD 38344 WR* 05 39 11.3190030600 -69 02 01.571056044 12.323 13.04 12.993 13.07 12.574 WN5h 73 0
75 VFTS 797 * 05 39 30.6375593832 -69 09 26.350501068   14.73 14.68     O3.5V((n))((fc)) 10 0
76 Mrk 4 GiG 06 27 59.9601492744 +74 18 06.310510128   15.0       ~ 36 0
77 Mrk 10 Sy1 07 47 29.0792948928 +60 56 00.658649544   15.18 14.71     ~ 242 0
78 Mrk 14 AG? 08 10 59.242 +72 47 40.10   15.09 14.67     ~ 41 0
79 Mrk 22 Sy1 09 49 30.3096198376 +55 34 46.971972356   15.7       ~ 72 0
80 NVSS J095700+595805 rG 09 57 00.6190463952 +59 58 07.963757256   15.6       ~ 26 0
81 Mrk 25 AGN 10 03 51.9487763664 +59 26 10.665521556   14.96 14.42     ~ 135 0
82 Mrk 26 G 10 11 51.4994549064 +58 53 23.933986224   15.7       ~ 23 0
83 Mrk 30 G 10 19 38.2388599152 +57 25 06.868961292   17.0       ~ 21 0
84 NGC 3353 AGN 10 45 22.390 +55 57 37.36 12.90 13.25 12.79     ~ 360 1
85 Mrk 36 SBG 11 04 58.298 +29 08 16.54   15.5 15.29     ~ 225 0
86 Mrk 37 GiC 11 16 32.3383997112 +28 46 35.278778568   15.2 15.96     ~ 24 0
87 Mrk 39 GiP 11 18 20.7414994848 +53 45 09.968904540   17.0       ~ 27 0
88 Mrk 42 Sy1 11 53 41.7732361680 +46 12 42.174375120   16.24 15.45     ~ 212 0
89 Mrk 47 G 12 15 59.2232132549 +40 34 21.508454967   16.0       ~ 15 0
90 Mrk 51 GiG 12 24 14.5317693648 +04 13 33.591167112   15.2       ~ 47 0
91 Mrk 53 AGN 12 56 06.097 +27 40 41.17   15.5 13.65 14.92   ~ 115 0
92 Mrk 55 LIN 12 57 25.2481557048 +27 24 16.550025768   16.0       ~ 70 1
93 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 14643 0

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