2015A&A...576A.131H


Query : 2015A&A...576A.131H

2015A&A...576A.131H - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 576A, 131-131 (2015/4-1)

Combination of CN(1-0), HCN(1-0), and HNC(1-0): A possible indicator for a high-mass star formation sequence in the Milky Way.

HAN X.H., ZHOU J.J., WANG J.Z., ESIMBEK J., ZHANG J.S. and WANG N.

Abstract (from CDS):

CN, HCN, and HNC have been used to discuss the star formation sequence in galaxies, but recent studies of large samples involving these lines did not yet provide convincing results. We intend to determine whether the global line ratios CN/HCN, CN/HNC, and HCN/HNC can be used to trace the high-mass star formation sequence in the Milky Way. We performed map observations of CN(1-0), HCN(1-0), and HNC(1-0) toward 38 high-mass star-forming regions, which includes high-mass starless cores (HMSC), high-mass protostars (HMPO), UCHII (ultra-compact HII) and normal HII regions. We identified the molecular clumps associated with them, and removed the clumps that were affected by environment. We averaged all the detected emission from each clump to obtain global line ratios and investigated their variations with the evolutionary stages of high-mass star-forming clumps. The global line ratios of ICN/IHNC and IHCN/IHNC for HMSC clumps (HMSCCs), HMPO clumps (HMPOCs), UCHII region clumps (UCHIICs), and HII region clumps display an increasing trend. We tentatively divide the star-forming regions into two types. Type 1 sources include HMSCCs and HMPOCs that are not associated with external 20cm continuum emission. Type 2 sources include all UCHIICs and HIICs. Our analysis shows that the ICN/IHNC and IHCN/IHNC line ratios can trace the evolution from type 1 to type 2 well. The same method may be used to study the evolution of external galaxies. ICN/IHNC and IHCN/IHNC appear to be good tracers for the evolution of high-mass star-forming regions in the Milky Way.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: clouds - ISM: molecules

CDS comments: Table A.1 objects 1 to 3 in IRAS 19078+0901, 1 to 2 in IRAS 19097+0847, 1 to 3 in IRAS 19442+2427 not in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 77

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Number of rows : 77
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 IRAS 01202+6133 Y*O 01 23 32.17896 +61 48 49.5180           ~ 32 0
2 NGC 660 Sy2 01 43 02.350 +13 38 44.45   12.02 11.16     ~ 538 2
3 HHL 5 HII 03 07 24.2 +58 30 45           ~ 146 0
4 UGC 2866 GiG 03 50 15.0019023336 +70 05 40.328180844   15.5       ~ 68 1
5 NGC 1614 AGN 04 34 00.027 -08 34 44.57   14.66 13.99     ~ 641 0
6 NAME Orion Bright Bar reg 05 35 22.30 -05 24 33.0           ~ 805 0
7 [MBH2005] G173.49+2.42 MM 3 cor 05 39 08.77 +35 46 42.9           ~ 3 0
8 [MBH2005] G173.49+2.42 MM 2 cor 05 39 10.85 +35 46 04.7           ~ 3 0
9 [MBH2005] G173.49+2.42 MM 4 cor 05 39 11.12 +35 45 18.2           ~ 3 0
10 [MES2015] 1058 cor 05 39 13.0 +35 45 52           ~ 6 0
11 NGC 2023 RNe 05 41 37.9 -02 15 52           ~ 602 1
12 UGC 5101 Sy1 09 35 51.6045544584 +61 21 11.589382368   15.20 15.50     ~ 541 4
13 NGC 3079 Sy2 10 01 57.8789863992 +55 40 47.449758324 11.57 11.54 10.86     ~ 1321 3
14 M 108 SBG 11 11 30.967 +55 40 26.84   10.70       ~ 444 1
15 NGC 4194 AGN 12 14 09.615 +54 31 35.93   13.79 13.30     ~ 436 2
16 NGC 6240 Sy2 16 52 58.861 +02 24 03.55   14.31 13.37     ~ 1565 2
17 [BSM2002] 18151-1208 2 cor 18 17 50.36 -12 07 54.8           ~ 17 0
18 [BSM2002] 18151-1208 3 cor 18 17 52.17 -12 06 55.5           ~ 9 0
19 IRAS 18151-1208 Y*O 18 17 58.1254 -12 07 24.893           ~ 104 0
20 [BSM2002] 18223-1243 4 cor 18 25 07.23 -12 47 54.2           ~ 8 0
21 NAME IRDC 18223-3 Y*O 18 25 08 -12 45.5           ~ 68 0
22 SSTGLMC G018.6274-00.0705 Y*O 18 25 10.0397930400 -12 44 08.557501272           ~ 26 0
23 [BSM2002] 18223-1243 1 cor 18 25 10.53 -12 42 25.8           ~ 9 0
24 AGAL G022.376+00.447 Y*O 18 30 24 -09 10.6           ~ 41 0
25 IRAS 18306-0835 cor 18 33 23.8651 -08 33 24.197           ~ 39 0
26 NAME IRDC 18310-4 cor 18 33 39.42 -08 21 10.4           ~ 17 0
27 [BSM2002] 18310-0825 3 cor 18 33 42.18 -08 21 35.7           ~ 3 0
28 [BSM2002] 18310-0825 2 cor 18 33 44.03 -08 21 19.6           ~ 4 0
29 JCMTSE J183347.9-082349 cor 18 33 47.8958 -08 23 46.742           ~ 10 0
30 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM5 mm 18 34 09.5 -08 18 00           ~ 6 0
31 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM3 mm 18 34 10.0 -08 18 28           ~ 7 0
32 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM1 mm 18 34 11.6 -08 19 06           ~ 14 0
33 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM2 mm 18 34 21.1 -08 18 07           ~ 13 0
34 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM7 mm 18 34 21.1 -08 17 11           ~ 7 0
35 [RJS2006] MSXDC G023.60+00.00 MM4 mm 18 34 23.0 -08 18 21           ~ 6 0
36 [WWS2012] G024.44-00.23 cor 18 36 40.8616 -07 39 12.022           ~ 16 0
37 [BSM2002] 18337-0743 5 cor 18 36 41.0 -07 39 56           ~ 3 0
38 CORNISH G024.5065-00.2224 Y*O 18 36 46.81 -07 35 41.1           ~ 11 0
39 AGAL G030.386-00.104 cor 18 47 10.22 -02 18 45.5           ~ 20 0
40 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM8 mm 18 53 16.4 +01 26 20           ~ 32 0
41 AGAL G034.411+00.234 Y*O 18 53 18.0 +01 25 24           ~ 56 0
42 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM7 mm 18 53 18.3 +01 27 13           ~ 33 0
43 [ZYL2017] G34-6 MoC 18 53 18.42 +01 27 33.9           ~ 20 0
44 [ZYL2017] G34-9 MoC 18 53 18.51 +01 28 30.5           ~ 26 0
45 [ZYL2017] G34-2 cor 18 53 18.6 +01 24 40           ~ 42 0
46 MSX5C G034.4037+00.2282 Y*O 18 53 18.66 +01 24 47.7           ~ 12 0
47 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM4 mm 18 53 19.0 +01 24 08           ~ 20 0
48 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM5 mm 18 53 19.8 +01 23 30           ~ 15 0
49 [RJS2006] MSXDC G034.43+00.24 MM3 mm 18 53 20.4 +01 28 23           ~ 37 0
50 [BSM2002] 18517+0437 2 cor 18 54 11.78 +04 41 57.7           ~ 2 0
51 [BSM2002] 18517+0437 1 cor 18 54 14.32 +04 41 39.7           ~ 2 0
52 [BSM2002] 18530+0215 2 cor 18 55 29.0 +02 17 43           ~ 3 0
53 IRAS 18530+0215 cor 18 55 33.7 +02 19 09           ~ 37 0
54 IRAS 19078+0901 HII 19 10 15.6 +09 06 05           ~ 33 0
55 IRAS 19110+1045 Y*O 19 13 22.0427 +10 50 53.336           ~ 121 0
56 Caswell OH 045.12+00.13 HII 19 13 27.845 +10 53 36.74           ~ 116 0
57 IRAS 20081+3122 Y*O 20 10 09.036 +31 31 34.14           ~ 170 0
58 NAME I20126N cor 20 14 26.029 +41 13 32.60           ~ 7 1
59 JCMTSF J203109.0+400348 cor 20 31 09.48 +40 03 41.2           ~ 3 0
60 [BSM2002] 20293+3952 1 cor 20 31 12.70 +40 03 13.4           ~ 2 0
61 [BSM2002] 20343+4129 3 cor 20 36 04.05 +41 39 46.6           ~ 2 0
62 [BSM2002] 20343+4129 2 cor 20 36 06.81 +41 39 57.1           ~ 2 0
63 [BSM2002] 20343+4129 1 cor 20 36 07.95 +41 39 56.7           ~ 2 0
64 NGC 7023 RNe 21 01 36.9 +68 09 48           ~ 667 0
65 IRAS 22134+5834 Y*O 22 15 09.02616 +58 49 08.8608           ~ 70 0
66 NAME Cep B cor 22 57 07.00 +62 37 22.3           ~ 83 0
67 [BSM2002] 22570+5912 4 cor 22 58 49.48 +59 28 49.0           ~ 2 0
68 JCMTSE J225855.3+592838 cor 22 58 55.15 +59 28 32.6           ~ 7 0
69 [BSM2002] 22570+5912 2 cor 22 59 02.80 +59 27 36.0           ~ 4 0
70 [BSM2002] 22570+5912 1 cor 22 59 05.90 +59 28 19.0           ~ 4 0
71 NGC 7469 Sy1 23 03 15.674 +08 52 25.28 12.60 13.00 12.34     ~ 1998 3
72 IRAS 23033+5951 Y*O 23 05 25.1762883456 +60 08 15.374293800           ~ 86 0
73 IRAS 23116+6111 mul 23 13 45.6 +61 28 18           ~ 45 0
74 SH 2-159 Y*O 23 15 31.27440 +61 07 10.4450           ~ 178 2
75 IRAS 23138+5945 mul 23 16 04.8 +60 02 00           ~ 42 0
76 JCMTSF J231609.7+595529 cor 23 16 10.46 +59 55 28.5           ~ 4 0
77 NGC 7771 GiG 23 51 24.880 +20 06 42.57 13.42 13.08 12.25     ~ 326 4

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2022.08.10-19:04:05

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