2016A&A...587A..53K


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.16CEST18:53:48

2016A&A...587A..53K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 587A, 53-53 (2016/3-1)

Gas expulsion in massive star clusters? Constraints from observations of young and gas-free objects.

KRAUSE M.G.H., CHARBONNEL C., BASTIAN N. and DIEHL R.

Abstract (from CDS):

Gas expulsion is a central concept in some of the models for multiple populations and the light-element anti-correlations in globular clusters. If the star formation efficiency was around 30 percent and the gas expulsion happened on the crossing timescale, this process could preferentially expel stars born with the chemical composition of the proto-cluster gas, while stars with special composition born in the centre would remain bound. Recently, a sample of extragalactic, gas-free, young massive clusters has been identified that has the potential to test the conditions for gas expulsion. We investigate the conditions required for residual gas expulsion on the crossing timescale. We consider a standard initial mass function and different models for the energy production in the cluster: metallicity-dependent stellar winds, radiation, supernovae and more energetic events, such as hypernovae, which are related to gamma ray bursts. The latter may be more energetic than supernovae by up to two orders of magnitude. We computed a large number of thin-shell models for the gas dynamics, and calculated whether the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is able to disrupt the shell before it reaches the escape speed. We show that the success of gas expulsion depends on the compactness index of a star cluster C5=(M*/105M)/(rh/pc), with initial stellar mass M* and half-mass radius rh. For given C5, a certain critical, local star formation efficiency is required to remove the rest of the gas. Common stellar feedback processes may not lead to gas expulsion with significant loss of stars above C5≃1. Considering pulsar winds and hypernovae, the limit increases to C5≃30. If successful, gas expulsion generally takes place on the crossing timescale. Some observed young massive clusters have 1<C5<10 and are gas-free at ≃10Myr. This suggests that gas expulsion does not affect their stellar mass significantly, unless powerful pulsar winds and hypernovae are common in such objects. By comparison to observations, we show that C5 is a better predictor for the expression of multiple populations than stellar mass. The best separation between star clusters with and without multiple populations is achieved by a stellar winds-based gas expulsion model, where gas expulsion would occur exclusively in star clusters without multiple populations. Single and multiple population clusters also have little overlap in metallicity and age. Globular clusters should initially have C5≲100, if the gas expulsion paradigm was correct. Early gas expulsion, which is suggested by the young massive cluster observations, hence would require special circumstances, and is excluded for several objects. Most likely, the stellar masses did not change significantly at the removal of the primordial gas. Instead, the predictive power of the C5 index for the expression of multiple populations is consistent with the idea that gas expulsion may prevent the expression of multiple populations. On this basis, compact young massive clusters should also have multiple populations.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: bubbles - globular clusters: general - galaxies: star clusters: general

Simbad objects: 111

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Number of rows : 111

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME IC 10 X-1 HXB 00 20 29.09 +59 16 51.9           ~ 148 0
2 NGC 104 GlC 00 24 05.359 -72 04 53.20   5.78 4.09     ~ 3549 0
3 NGC 288 GlC 00 52 45.24 -26 34 57.4   10 8.13     ~ 921 0
4 NGC 362 GlC 01 03 14.26 -70 50 55.6     6.58     ~ 939 0
5 NGC 752 OpC 01 57 41 +37 47.1           ~ 537 0
6 NAME Fornax H3 GlC 02 39 48.16 -34 15 28.6   13.59       ~ 110 0
7 NAME Fornax H5 GlC 02 42 21.111 -34 06 05.80   14.5       ~ 87 0
8 [HOG94] 1 Cl* 02 54 33.057 -10 01 39.38           ~ 10 0
9 NGC 1140 EmG 02 54 33.5258827369 -10 01 43.135585379 12.41 12.84 12.49 13.6 13.5 ~ 261 1
10 NGC 1261 GlC 03 12 16.21 -55 12 58.4   9.79 8.63     ~ 427 0
11 Cl Melotte 25 OpC 04 26 54.00 +15 52 00.0           ~ 2654 0
12 NAME NGC 1569 CL* A Cl* 04 30 48.2 +64 50 59   15.45 15.22     ~ 97 1
13 NAME NGC 1569 CL* B Cl* 04 30 49.0 +64 50 53           ~ 70 0
14 NGC 1569 IG 04 30 49.186 +64 50 52.52 11.72 11.86 11.03     ~ 1149 3
15 NGC 1651 GlC 04 37 32.530 -70 35 08.71   12.99 12.28     ~ 107 0
16 [BHE2002] NGC 1705 1 Cl* 04 54 08.62 -53 21 22.7           ~ 5 0
17 NGC 1705 SBG 04 54 13.500 -53 21 39.82 12.32 12.96 12.56 12.58 12.9 ~ 596 1
18 NGC 1786 Cl* 04 59 07.470 -67 44 45.44   10.1       ~ 134 0
19 NGC 1783 GlC 04 59 08.590 -65 59 15.84   10.9 10.93     ~ 226 0
20 NGC 1806 GlC 05 02 11.180 -67 59 05.89   11.1       ~ 143 0
21 NGC 1846 Cl* 05 07 34.900 -67 27 32.45   12.08 11.31     ~ 180 0
22 NGC 1817 OpC 05 12 15 +16 41.4   8.44 7.7     ~ 152 0
23 NGC 1866 GlC 05 13 38.920 -65 27 52.75   9.98 9.73     ~ 388 0
24 NGC 1851 GlC 05 14 06.76 -40 02 47.6   8.80 7.23     ~ 1242 0
25 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14838 1
26 M 79 GlC 05 24 10.59 -24 31 27.3   9.21 8.16     ~ 717 0
27 NGC 1978 GlC 05 28 45.330 -66 14 12.04   10.7 10.70     ~ 273 0
28 NGC 2173 GlC 05 57 58 -72 58.7   12.74 11.88     ~ 130 0
29 NGC 2210 GlC 06 11 31.296 -69 07 17.04   10.9 10.94     ~ 174 0
30 NGC 2257 Cl* 06 30 12 -64 19.6   13.24 12.62     ~ 205 0
31 NGC 2298 GlC 06 48 59.41 -36 00 19.1   10.77 8.89     ~ 424 0
32 NGC 2360 OpC 07 17 43 -15 38.5           ~ 169 0
33 Cl Berkeley 39 OpC 07 46 42 -04 36.0           ~ 152 1
34 NGC 2506 OpC 08 00 01 -10 46.2   8.28 7.6     ~ 221 0
35 NGC 2682 OpC 08 51 18 +11 48.0           ~ 2032 0
36 IRAS 09110-6439 GlC 09 12 03.10 -64 51 48.6   7.77 5.69     ~ 1246 0
37 NGC 3114 OpC 10 02 36 -60 07.2   4.47 4.2     ~ 166 0
38 NGC 3201 GlC 10 17 36.82 -46 24 44.9   9.18 8.24     ~ 723 0
39 RFD S PoG 12 01 50.55 -18 52 11.5           ~ 17 0
40 [WCS2010] 38220 Cl* 12 01 53.008 -18 52 10.83           ~ 3 0
41 [BTK2009] T352 Cl* 12 01 53.022 -18 52 10.60           ~ 5 0
42 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1556 0
43 Cl Melotte 111 OpC 12 25 06.00 +26 06 00.0           ~ 404 0
44 Cl Collinder 261 OpC 12 38 11.5 -68 22 01     10.7     ~ 156 0
45 C 1235-509 GlC 12 38 40.20 -51 09 01.0           ~ 322 0
46 M 68 GlC 12 39 27.98 -26 44 38.6   10.26 7.96     ~ 877 0
47 NGC 4833 GlC 12 59 33.92 -70 52 35.4   8.72 7.79     ~ 350 0
48 M 53 GlC 13 12 55.25 +18 10 05.4   8.95 7.79     ~ 715 0
49 NGC 5053 GlC 13 16 27.09 +17 42 00.9     9.96     ~ 535 0
50 M 3 GlC 13 42 11.62 +28 22 38.2     6.39     ~ 2267 0
51 NGC 5286 GlC 13 46 26.81 -51 22 27.3   9.18 8.31     ~ 364 0
52 NGC 5466 GlC 14 05 27.29 +28 32 04.0   10.5 9.70     ~ 720 0
53 NGC 5897 GlC 15 17 24.40 -21 00 36.4   10.16 8.52     ~ 338 0
54 M 5 GlC 15 18 33.22 +02 04 51.7   7.34 5.95     ~ 1773 0
55 NGC 5927 GlC 15 28 00.69 -50 40 22.9   10.13 8.86     ~ 404 0
56 NGC 5986 GlC 15 46 03.00 -37 47 11.1     6.92     ~ 307 0
57 M 80 GlC 16 17 02.41 -22 58 33.9           ~ 618 0
58 M 4 GlC 16 23 35.22 -26 31 32.7           ~ 1677 0
59 NGC 6101 GlC 16 25 48.12 -72 12 07.9   10.90 10.08     ~ 238 0
60 NGC 6144 GlC 16 27 13.86 -26 01 24.6   10.55 9.63     ~ 203 0
61 NGC 6139 GlC 16 27 39.987 -38 50 57.03   11.03 9.68     ~ 179 0
62 NGC 6134 OpC 16 27 46 -49 09.1   7.89 7.2     ~ 130 0
63 M 107 GlC 16 32 31.86 -13 03 13.6   9.96 8.85     ~ 703 0
64 M 13 GlC 16 41 41.634 +36 27 40.75     5.8     ~ 2009 0
65 M 12 GlC 16 47 14.18 -01 56 54.7   8.52 6.07     ~ 580 0
66 M 10 GlC 16 57 09.05 -04 06 01.1     4.98     ~ 685 0
67 NGC 6253 OpC 16 59 05 -52 42.0     10.2     ~ 144 0
68 NGC 6304 GlC 17 14 32.25 -29 27 43.3   10.33 9.03     ~ 298 0
69 M 92 GlC 17 17 07.39 +43 08 09.4     6.52     ~ 1906 0
70 IC 4651 OpC 17 24 49 -49 56.0           ~ 309 0
71 NGC 6352 GlC 17 25 29.11 -48 25 19.8   9.95 8.87     ~ 340 0
72 NGC 6366 GlC 17 27 44.24 -05 04 47.5           ~ 261 0
73 ESO 455-11 GlC 17 31 05.20 -29 58 54.0           ~ 131 0
74 NGC 6362 GlC 17 31 54.99 -67 02 54.0   9.72 8.86     ~ 488 0
75 NGC 6388 GlC 17 36 17.461 -44 44 08.34   7.40       ~ 807 1
76 NGC 6397 GlC 17 40 42.09 -53 40 27.6   7.39 5.17     ~ 1800 1
77 NGC 6441 GlC 17 50 13.06 -37 03 05.2   9.26 8.00     ~ 769 0
78 NGC 6475 OpC 17 53 51 -34 47.6           ~ 337 0
79 NGC 6496 GlC 17 59 03.68 -44 15 57.4   9.96       ~ 181 0
80 NGC 6535 GlC 18 03 50.51 -00 17 51.5   11.35 9.85     ~ 241 0
81 NGC 6541 GlC 18 08 02.36 -43 42 53.6   8.06 7.32     ~ 322 1
82 NGC 6553 GlC 18 09 15.68 -25 54 27.9   9.08       ~ 535 0
83 NGC 6584 GlC 18 18 37.60 -52 12 56.8   10.32 8.17     ~ 245 0
84 NGC 6624 GlC 18 23 40.51 -30 21 39.7           ~ 775 1
85 M 69 GlC 18 31 23.10 -32 20 53.1   9.32 8.31     ~ 406 1
86 NGC 6652 GlC 18 35 45.63 -32 59 26.6   10.64 9.75     ~ 350 0
87 M 22 GlC 18 36 23.94 -23 54 17.1   7.16 6.17     ~ 1217 0
88 RSGC 1 OpC 18 37 58 -06 53.0           ~ 87 0
89 Cl Stephenson 2 OpC 18 39 20 -06 01.7           ~ 82 0
90 M 70 GlC 18 43 12.76 -32 17 31.6   9.76 9.06     ~ 332 0
91 NGC 6705 OpC 18 51 05 -06 16.2   6.32 5.8     ~ 354 0
92 M 54 GlC 18 55 03.33 -30 28 47.5           ~ 900 0
93 NGC 6717 GlC 18 55 06.04 -22 42 05.3   11.29 10.35     ~ 194 0
94 NGC 6723 GlC 18 59 33.15 -36 37 56.1           ~ 431 0
95 NGC 6752 GlC 19 10 52.11 -59 59 04.4   6.96 6.28     ~ 1808 0
96 M 56 GlC 19 16 35.57 +30 11 00.5   8.90       ~ 360 0
97 Cl Terzan 7 GlC 19 17 43.92 -34 39 27.8           ~ 359 0
98 NGC 6791 OpC 19 20 53 +37 46.3   10.52 9.5     ~ 869 0
99 ESO 338-4 IG 19 27 58.338 -41 34 30.81   13.55 13.21 13.14 13.43 ~ 210 1
100 M 55 GlC 19 39 59.71 -30 57 53.1     6.49     ~ 759 0
101 M 71 GlC 19 53 46.49 +18 46 45.1   7.91 6.1     ~ 1025 0
102 NGC 6934 GlC 20 34 11.37 +07 24 16.1   10.48 9.75     ~ 360 0
103 [L2004] n6946-1447 Cl* 20 34 32.03 +60 08 14.7   15.71 15.7     ~ 24 0
104 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2235 2
105 M 72 GlC 20 53 27.70 -12 32 14.3   9.95 8.96     ~ 366 0
106 M 15 GlC 21 29 58.33 +12 10 01.2   3       ~ 2908 0
107 M 2 GlC 21 33 27.02 -00 49 23.7     6.25     ~ 900 1
108 M 30 GlC 21 40 22.12 -23 10 47.5     7.10     ~ 915 0
109 Cl Pal 12 GlC 21 46 38.84 -21 15 09.4     11.89     ~ 449 0
110 NGC 7789 OpC 23 57 24 +56 42.5   7.68 6.7     ~ 455 0
111 [OBR98] Inner23 GlC ~ ~           ~ 14 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.16-18:53:48

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