2016A&A...591A..40S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.06.03CEST02:43:29

2016A&A...591A..40S - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 591A, 40-40 (2016/7-1)

Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment.

SCHNEIDER N., BONTEMPS S., MOTTE F., BLAZERE A., ANDRE P., ANDERSON L.D., ARZOUMANIAN D., COMERON F., DIDELON P., DI FRANCESCO J., DUARTE-CABRAL A., GUARCELLO M.G., HENNEMANN M., HILL T., KONYVES V., MARSTON A., MINIER V., RYGL K.L.J., ROLLIG M., ROY A., SPINOGLIO L., TREMBLIN P., WHITE G.J. and WRIGHT N.J.

Abstract (from CDS):

The radiative feedback of massive stars on molecular clouds creates pillars, globules and other features at the interface between the H II region and molecular cloud. Optical and near-infrared observations from the ground as well as with the Hubble or Spitzer satellites have revealed numerous examples of such cloud structures. We present here Herschel far-infrared observations between 70µm and 500µm of the immediate environment of the rich Cygnus OB2 association, performed within the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) program. All of the observed irradiated structures were detected based on their appearance at 70µm, and have been classified as pillars, globules, evaporating gasous globules (EGGs), proplyd-like objects, and condensations. From the 70µm and 160µm flux maps, we derive the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) field on the photon dominated surfaces. In parallel, we use a census of the O-stars to estimate the overall FUV-field, that is 103-104G0 (Habing field) close to the central OB cluster (within 10pc) and decreases down to a few tens G0, in a distance of 50pc. From a spectral energy distribution (SED) fit to the four longest Herschel wavelengths, we determine column density and temperature maps and derive masses, volume densities and surface densities for these structures. We find that the morphological classification corresponds to distinct physical properties. Pillars and globules are massive (∼500M) and large (equivalent radius r∼0.6pc) structures, corresponding to what is defined as "clumps" for molecular clouds. EGGs and proplyd-likeobjects are smaller (r∼0.1 and 0.2pc) and less massive (∼10 and ∼30M). Cloud condensations are small (∼0.1pc), have an average mass of 35M, are dense (∼6x104cm–3), and can thus be described as molecular cloud "cores". All pillars and globules are oriented toward the Cyg OB2 association center and have the longest estimated photoevaporation lifetimes, a few million years, while all other features should survive less than a million years. These lifetimes are consistent with that found in simulations of turbulent, UV-illuminated clouds. We propose a tentative evolutionary scheme in which pillars can evolve into globules, which in turn then evolve into EGGs, condensations and proplyd-like objects.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2016

Journal keyword(s): ISM: clouds - ISM: individual objects: Cygnus X

Status at CDS:  

CDS comments: Tables A.1, A.2 regions not in SIMBAD. Protostar #5 = [CPR2002] A1 and Protostar #7 = [CPR2002] B2.

Simbad objects: 20

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Number of rows : 20

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 IC 1805 OpC 02 32 42 +61 27.0   7.03 6.5     ~ 473 2
2 M 42 HII 05 35 17.3 -05 23 28           ~ 3712 0
3 NAME Ori A MoC 05 38 -07.1           ~ 2663 0
4 NAME Rosette Nebula HII 06 31 40 +04 57.8           ~ 443 1
5 NGC 3372 HII 10 44 19.0 -59 53 21           ~ 884 2
6 NVSS J125150+351824 Rad 12 51 50.20 +35 18 24.8           ~ 6 1
7 M 16 OpC 18 18 48 -13 48.4   6.58 6.0     ~ 935 2
8 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 613 1
9 18P 59 HII 20 32 31.2 +40 16 35           ~ 63 0
10 [CPR2002] A1 * 20 33 11.6682974504 +40 41 54.283953587           ~ 4 0
11 Ass Cyg OB 2 As* 20 33.2 +41 19           ~ 785 0
12 BD+40 4227A SB* 20 33 15.0780900764 +41 18 50.478859468 10.42 10.27 8.98 8.03 6.83 O6Ib(fc)+O4.5:III:(fc) 213 0
13 IRAS 20324+4057 Y*O 20 34 13.26144 +41 08 14.0676           ~ 20 0
14 18P 64 Rad 20 35 08.4 +41 13 20           ~ 21 0
15 MSX6C G080.3624+00.4213 IR 20 35 15.2 +41 12 23           ~ 2 0
16 IRAS 20343+4129 HII 20 36 07.1 +41 40 01           ~ 51 0
17 18P 73 Rad 20 36 55.9 +41 36 29           ~ 41 0
18 GRS G081.70 +00.50 SFR 20 39 01.6 +42 19 38           O4.5 942 0
19 DR 22 HII 20 39 16.67 +41 18 44.7           ~ 43 1
20 NAME Gould Belt PoG ~ ~           ~ 707 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.06.03-02:43:29

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