2017A&A...598A..30T


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.10CEST02:18:15

2017A&A...598A..30T - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 598A, 30-30 (2017/2-1)

Kinetic temperature of massive star forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde.

TANG X.D., HENKEL C., MENTEN K.M., ZHENG X.W., ESIMBEK J., ZHOU J.J., YEH C.C., KONIG C., YUAN Y., HE Y.X. and LI D.L.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. For a general understanding of the physics involved in the star formation process, measurements of physical parameters such as temperature and density are indispensable. The chemical and physical properties of dense clumps of molecular clouds are strongly affected by the kinetic temperature. Therefore, this parameter is essential for a better understanding of the interstellar medium. Formaldehyde, a molecule which traces the entire dense molecular gas, appears to be the most reliable tracer to directly measure the gas kinetic temperature.
Aims. We aim to determine the kinetic temperature with spectral lines from formaldehyde and to compare the results with those obtained from ammonia lines for a large number of massive clumps.
Methods. Three 218GHz transitions (JKAKC=303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) of para-H2CO were observed with the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) toward 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured para-H2CO 322-221/303-202 and 321-220/303-202 ratios.
Results. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO (321-220/303-202) line ratios range from 30 to 61K with an average of 46±9K. A comparison of kinetic temperature derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and the dust emission indicates that in many cases para-H2CO traces a similar kinetic temperature to the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust associated with the HII regions. Distinctly higher temperatures are probed by para-H2CO in the clumps associated with outflows/shocks. Kinetic temperatures obtained from para-H2CO trace turbulence to a higher degree than NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) in the massive clumps. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO lines are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperature. The massive clumps are significantly influenced by supersonic non-thermal motions.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: massive - ISM: clouds - ISM: molecules - radio lines: ISM

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/598/A30): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat table5.dat tablea2.dat sp/*>

Simbad objects: 45

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Number of rows : 45

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 W 3 MoC 02 27 04.10 +61 52 27.1           ~ 962 3
2 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5669 1
3 LDN 1551 DNe 04 31 30.0 +18 12 30           ~ 768 1
4 LDN 1527 DNe 04 39 53 +25 45.0           ~ 495 0
5 NAME Orion-KL SFR 05 35 14.16 -05 22 21.5           ~ 2001 1
6 NAME Orion Bright Bar reg 05 35 22.30 -05 24 33.0           ~ 716 0
7 LHA 120-N 159W MoC 05 39 32.510 -69 46 02.74           ~ 73 0
8 NGC 2024 Cl* 05 41 43 -01 50.5           ~ 1071 1
9 NGC 2071 RNe 05 47 10 +00 18.0           ~ 609 1
10 NGC 2264 OpC 06 40 58 +09 53.7     3.9     ~ 1588 1
11 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5336 6
12 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11540 0
13 GAL 005.88-00.39 HII 18 00 30.3 -24 04 00           ~ 23 1
14 BGPS G005.901-00.443 cor 18 00 44.0309 -24 04 43.436           ~ 8 0
15 BGPS G006.919-00.225 cor 18 02 06.3865 -23 05 10.699           ~ 5 0
16 [WWS2012] G005.97-01.36 cor 18 04 22.1353 -24 28 28.280           ~ 2 0
17 [WWS2012] G009.21-00.20 cor 18 06 52.5684 -21 04 36.805           ~ 9 0
18 [WWS2012] G009.04-00.52 cor 18 07 42.9318 -21 23 14.491           ~ 9 0
19 [UFM2015] G010.990-00.083 cor 18 10 06.8172 -19 27 55.152           ~ 13 0
20 [THW2006] G009.88-00.75 a cor 18 10 19.2 -20 45 31           ~ 8 0
21 [HBM2005] G12.68-0.18 cor 18 13 54.7674 -18 01 44.258           ~ 24 0
22 EGO G011.92-0.61 of? 18 13 58.1 -18 54 17           ~ 36 0
23 SNR G012.8-00.2 SFR 18 14 14.0 -17 55 50           ~ 218 0
24 BGPS G012.909-00.260 cor 18 14 39.5540 -17 51 57.776           ~ 14 0
25 [WWS2012] G013.28-00.3 cor 18 15 40.3892 -17 34 50.663           ~ 11 0
26 [WWS2012] G012.43-01.11 cor 18 16 51.06 -18 41 34.5           ~ 3 0
27 AGAL G014.194-00.194 Y*O 18 16 58.5794 -16 42 14.134           ~ 26 0
28 [WWS2012] G017.10+01.02 cor 18 18 14.8036 -13 34 14.507           ~ 2 0
29 [WWS2012] G014.33-00.64 cor 18 18 54.5230 -16 47 41.242           ~ 2 0
30 [WWS2012] G015.66-00.50 cor 18 20 59.7602 -15 33 12.884           ~ 8 0
31 [WWS2012] G018.21-00.34 cor 18 25 21.9447 -13 13 27.353           ~ 10 1
32 [WWS2012] G019.01-00.03 cor 18 25 44.9594 -12 22 41.685           ~ 12 1
33 [WWS2012] G022.55-00.52 cor 18 34 13.1598 -09 28 22.769           ~ 9 0
34 [WWS2012] G028.61-00.03 cor 18 43 35.9535 -03 52 03.257           ~ 11 0
35 AGAL G028.861+00.066 cor 18 43 46.3857 -03 35 26.817           ~ 23 0
36 BGPS G030.234+00.566 cor 18 44 29.9346 -02 08 34.867           ~ 6 0
37 [CUS2014] G030.7016-0.0672 cor 18 47 36.6 -02 00 54           ~ 45 0
38 [THW2006] G031.396-00.258SMM cor 18 49 33.2274 -01 28 57.854           ~ 29 0
39 BGPS G031.699-00.495 cor 18 50 57.1392 -01 19 21.244           ~ 8 0
40 [WWS2012] G035.03+00.35 cor 18 54 00.7975 +02 01 24.083           ~ 21 0
41 [WWS2012] G034.37-00.66 cor 18 56 25.7976 +00 58 41.425           ~ 2 0
42 [WWS2012] G035.19-00.74 cor 18 58 11.9607 +01 40 23.874           ~ 2 0
43 NAME CrA Dark Cloud MoC 19 01 51 -36 58.9           ~ 394 0
44 [WWS2012] G037.87-00.40 cor 19 01 53.9677 +04 12 56.193           ~ 13 0
45 LDN 1157 DNe 20 39 06.4 +68 02 13           ~ 484 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.10-02:18:15

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