2017A&A...600A..93F


Query : 2017A&A...600A..93F

2017A&A...600A..93F - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 600A, 93-93 (2017/4-1)

Star formation towards the Galactic H II region RCW 120. Herschel observations of compact sources.

FIGUEIRA M., ZAVAGNO A., DEHARVENG L., RUSSEIL D., ANDERSON L.D., MEN'SHCHIKOV A., SCHNEIDER N., HILL T., MOTTE F., MEGE P., LELEU G., ROUSSEL H., BERNARD J.-P., TRAFICANTE A., PARADIS D., TIGE J., ANDRE P., BONTEMPS S. and ABERGEL A.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. The expansion of HII regions can trigger the formation of stars. An overdensity of young stellar objects is observed at the edges of HII regions but the mechanisms that give rise to this phenomenon are not clearly identified. Moreover, it is difficult to establish a causal link between HII -region expansion and the star formation observed at the edges of these regions. A clear age gradient observed in the spatial distribution of young sources in the surrounding might be a strong argument in favor of triggering.
Aims. We aim to characterize the star formation observed at the edges of HII regions by studying the properties of young stars that form there. We aim to detect young sources, derive their properties and their evolution stage in order to discuss the possible causal link between the first-generation massive stars that form the HII region and the young sources observed at their edges.
Methods. We have observed the Galactic HII region RCW 120 with Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometers at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500µm. We produced temperature and H2 column density maps and use the getsources algorithm to detect compact sources and measure their fluxes at Herschel wavelengths. We have complemented these fluxes with existing infrared data. Fitting their spectral energy distributions with a modified blackbody model, we derived their envelope dust temperature and envelope mass. We computed their bolometric luminosities and discuss their evolutionary stages.
Results. The overall temperatures of the region (without background subtraction) range from 15K to 24K. The warmest regions are observed towards the ionized gas. The coldest regions are observed outside the ionized gas and follow the emission of the cold material previously detected at 870µm and 1.3mm. The H2 column density map reveals the distribution of the cold medium to be organized in filaments and highly structured. Column densities range from 7x1021cm–2 up to 9x1023cm–2 without background subtraction. The cold regions observed outside the ionized gas are the densest and host star formation when the column density exceeds 2x1022cm–2. The most reliable 35 compact sources are discussed. Using existing CO data and morphological arguments we show that these sources are likely to be associated with the RCW 120 region. These sources' volume densities range from 2x105cm–3 to 108cm–3. Five sources have envelope masses larger than 50 M and are all observed in high column density regions (>7x1022cm–2). We find that the evolutionary stage of the sources primarily depends on the density of their hosting condensation and is not correlated with the distance to the ionizing star.
Conclusions. The Herschel data, with their unique sampling of the far infrared domain, have allowed us to characterize the properties of compact sources observed towards RCW 120 for the first time. We have also been able to determine the envelope temperature, envelope mass and evolutionary stage of these sources. Using these properties we have shown that the density of the condensations that host star formation is a key parameter of the star-formation history, irrespective of their projected distance to the ionizing stars.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): H II regions - stars: formation - ISM: individual objects: RCW 120 - ISM: individual objects: RCW 120

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/600/A93): tablea1.dat>

Nomenclature: Table A.1: [FZD2017] NNN N=122 among (Nos 1-329).

Simbad objects: 132

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Number of rows : 132
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NAME W 5 East MoC 03 01 32 +60 29.2           ~ 123 2
2 SH 2-241 HII 06 04.1 +30 15           ~ 55 1
3 HD 311999 * 12 50 22.6138415928 -61 35 00.794816232 11.14 11.40 10.77 10.76   OB 40 0
4 GRS G308.60 +00.60 HII 13 39.9 -61 45           ~ 98 0
5 RCW 82 HII 13 59.3 -61 27           ~ 30 0
6 [KC97c] G332.5-00.1 HII 16 17 04.0 -50 47 43           ~ 8 0
7 2MASS J17112829-3821533 Y*O 17 11 28.290 -38 21 53.36           ~ 2 0
8 2MASS J17113081-3818504 cor 17 11 30.820 -38 18 50.44           ~ 1 0
9 2MASS J17113931-3827049 Y*O 17 11 39.317 -38 27 04.98           ~ 4 0
10 [FZD2017] 20 cor 17 11 44.22 -38 19 46.7           ~ 1 0
11 [FZD2017] 85 cor 17 11 46.28 -38 14 00.3           ~ 1 0
12 SSTGLMC G348.2919+00.6439 Y*O 17 11 48.4277 -38 19 46.757           ~ 3 0
13 2MASS J17114905-3824053 Y*O 17 11 49.059 -38 24 05.35           ~ 4 0
14 SSTGLMC G348.2916+00.6403 Y*? 17 11 49.26 -38 19 55.2           ~ 2 0
15 SSTGLMC G348.2949+00.6426 Y*O 17 11 49.2920 -38 19 40.893           ~ 4 0
16 [FZD2017] 50 cor 17 11 49.44 -38 24 12.4           ~ 1 0
17 IRAS 17084-3816 Y*O 17 11 50.705 -38 19 55.34           ~ 6 0
18 SSTGLMC G348.1306+00.5135 Y*O 17 11 51.5185 -38 32 12.619           ~ 4 0
19 [FZD2017] 262 cor 17 11 53.67 -38 29 32.8           ~ 1 0
20 [FZD2017] 158 cor 17 11 56.93 -38 19 21.6           ~ 1 0
21 [FZD2017] 12 cor 17 11 57.03 -38 29 07.1           ~ 1 0
22 2MASS J17115721-3825178 Y*O 17 11 57.215 -38 25 17.80           ~ 3 0
23 [FZD2017] 137 cor 17 11 57.81 -38 17 08.6           ~ 1 0
24 [DZS2009] 32 Y*O 17 12 00.0220 -38 33 23.673           ~ 2 0
25 [FZD2017] 151 cor 17 12 01.03 -38 28 25.0           ~ 1 0
26 [FZD2017] 271 cor 17 12 01.38 -38 29 32.7           ~ 1 0
27 [FZD2017] 180 cor 17 12 01.87 -38 29 55.3           ~ 1 0
28 [FZD2017] 214 cor 17 12 02.18 -38 25 07.9           ~ 1 0
29 [FZD2017] 243 cor 17 12 04.12 -38 27 56.3           ~ 1 0
30 [FZD2017] 202 cor 17 12 04.25 -38 21 20.5           ~ 1 0
31 [FZD2017] 17 cor 17 12 04.99 -38 30 51.2           ~ 1 0
32 [DZS2009] 53 Y*O 17 12 05.5005 -38 30 34.511           ~ 3 0
33 2MASS J17120627-3830433 Y*O 17 12 06.272 -38 30 43.38           ~ 2 0
34 SSTGLMC G348.1609+00.4690 Y*O 17 12 08.0347 -38 32 19.128           ~ 5 0
35 AGAL G348.183+00.482 Y*O 17 12 08.70 -38 30 47.4           ~ 13 0
36 [FZD2017] 9 cor 17 12 08.93 -38 31 35.5           ~ 1 0
37 [FZD2017] 11 cor 17 12 09.75 -38 32 20.5           ~ 1 0
38 [FZD2017] 15 cor 17 12 09.76 -38 31 15.2           ~ 1 0
39 [FZD2017] 10 cor 17 12 10.84 -38 31 10.3           ~ 1 0
40 [FZD2017] 39 cor 17 12 10.90 -38 31 29.1           ~ 1 0
41 [DZS2009] 38 Y*O 17 12 10.9204 -38 31 59.696           ~ 4 0
42 [FZD2017] 58 cor 17 12 11.79 -38 31 28.9           ~ 1 0
43 [FZD2017] 295 cor 17 12 12.63 -38 32 26.6           ~ 1 0
44 [FZD2017] 307 cor 17 12 13.72 -38 23 25.5           ~ 1 0
45 [FZD2017] 234 cor 17 12 13.76 -38 32 43.4           ~ 1 0
46 2MASS J17121384-3832258 cor 17 12 13.848 -38 32 25.81           ~ 1 0
47 [FZD2017] 183 cor 17 12 16.16 -38 24 02.4           ~ 1 0
48 [FZD2017] 82 cor 17 12 17.12 -38 31 56.5           ~ 1 0
49 [FZD2017] 179 cor 17 12 17.60 -38 34 54.1           ~ 1 0
50 SSTGLMC G348.1479+00.4196 Y*O 17 12 17.94 -38 34 41.6           ~ 3 0
51 [FZD2017] 225 cor 17 12 18.32 -38 30 50.4           ~ 1 0
52 [FZD2017] 244 cor 17 12 18.82 -38 23 04.6           ~ 1 0
53 [FZD2017] 235 cor 17 12 19.64 -38 19 56.5           ~ 1 0
54 [FZD2017] 59 cor 17 12 20.03 -38 31 52.9           ~ 1 0
55 2MASS J17122017-3833468 cor 17 12 20.172 -38 33 46.83           ~ 1 0
56 [FZD2017] 150 cor 17 12 20.38 -38 34 34.7           ~ 1 0
57 [FZD2017] 172 cor 17 12 20.40 -38 29 59.1           ~ 1 0
58 [FZD2017] 209 cor 17 12 20.71 -38 18 57.0           ~ 1 0
59 CD-38 11636 * 17 12 20.8455264407 -38 29 30.394099276 12 11.90 10.87 10.42   O8 44 1
60 IRAS 17089-3814 OH* 17 12 21.20832 -38 18 20.4588           O-rich 9 1
61 2MASS J17122157-3825297 cor 17 12 21.575 -38 25 29.76           ~ 1 0
62 [FZD2017] 300 Y*O 17 12 21.61 -38 33 35.6           ~ 2 0
63 [FZD2017] 187 cor 17 12 21.71 -38 30 52.2           ~ 1 0
64 [FZD2017] 152 cor 17 12 21.87 -38 26 15.4           ~ 1 0
65 [FZD2017] 145 cor 17 12 22.21 -38 31 29.7           ~ 1 0
66 [FZD2017] 116 cor 17 12 23.17 -38 32 26.1           ~ 1 0
67 [FZD2017] 78 cor 17 12 23.43 -38 31 35.1           ~ 1 0
68 [FZD2017] 52 cor 17 12 23.44 -38 31 03.5           ~ 1 0
69 SH 2-3 HII 17 12.4 -38 28           ~ 187 1
70 [FZD2017] 245 cor 17 12 24.21 -38 21 13.9           ~ 1 0
71 [FZD2017] 36 cor 17 12 24.46 -38 31 41.4           ~ 1 0
72 [FZD2017] 185 cor 17 12 26.23 -38 32 09.5           ~ 1 0
73 [FZD2017] 40 cor 17 12 26.38 -38 31 56.4           ~ 1 0
74 [FZD2017] 279 cor 17 12 27.14 -38 22 00.7           ~ 1 0
75 [FZD2017] 268 cor 17 12 28.47 -38 16 07.3           ~ 1 0
76 [FZD2017] 210 cor 17 12 28.64 -38 35 52.3           ~ 1 0
77 [FZD2017] 32 cor 17 12 28.65 -38 30 51.5           ~ 1 0
78 [FZD2017] 123 cor 17 12 28.95 -38 24 11.5           ~ 1 0
79 [FZD2017] 106 cor 17 12 29.22 -38 32 13.3           ~ 1 0
80 [FZD2017] 231 cor 17 12 30.09 -38 23 40.9           ~ 1 0
81 [FZD2017] 87 cor 17 12 30.18 -38 20 08.3           ~ 1 0
82 [FZD2017] 274 cor 17 12 30.70 -38 19 20.9           ~ 1 0
83 [FZD2017] 142 cor 17 12 30.97 -38 34 51.9           ~ 1 0
84 [FZD2017] 95 cor 17 12 31.39 -38 19 09.3           ~ 1 0
85 [FZD2017] 81 cor 17 12 31.71 -38 19 47.0           ~ 1 0
86 [FZD2017] 16 cor 17 12 31.71 -38 31 00.2           ~ 1 0
87 [FZD2017] 259 cor 17 12 32.17 -38 22 52.6           ~ 1 0
88 2MASS J17123250-3827533 AB* 17 12 32.505 -38 27 53.37           O-rich 4 0
89 [DZS2009] 50 Y*O 17 12 33.5230 -38 30 49.384           ~ 4 0
90 2MASS J17123365-3819523 Y*O 17 12 33.652 -38 19 52.32           ~ 5 0
91 [FZD2017] 157 cor 17 12 33.75 -38 24 14.5           ~ 1 0
92 [FZD2017] 44 cor 17 12 34.09 -38 20 40.1           ~ 1 0
93 [FZD2017] 8 cor 17 12 35.50 -38 30 43.6           ~ 1 0
94 2MASS J17123917-3821224 Y*O 17 12 39.176 -38 21 22.49           ~ 5 0
95 [FZD2017] 241 cor 17 12 39.85 -38 30 56.8           ~ 1 0
96 [FZD2017] 222 cor 17 12 40.08 -38 20 18.1           ~ 1 0
97 2MASS J17124017-3820310 Y*O 17 12 40.1765354016 -38 20 31.080933240           ~ 5 0
98 [FZD2017] 28 cor 17 12 40.68 -38 27 03.4           ~ 1 0
99 2MASS J17124072-3821334 Y*O 17 12 40.72 -38 21 33.4           ~ 2 0
100 [FZD2017] 103 cor 17 12 41.02 -38 30 17.7           ~ 1 0
101 2MASS J17124110-3827171 Y*O 17 12 41.1105490464 -38 27 17.171019864           ~ 5 0
102 2MASS J17124145-3826098 cor 17 12 41.456 -38 26 09.82           ~ 1 0
103 [DZS2009] 105 Y*O 17 12 42.2388 -38 20 07.644           ~ 3 0
104 [FZD2017] 84 cor 17 12 42.26 -38 22 53.2           ~ 1 0
105 [FZD2017] 14 cor 17 12 42.30 -38 26 59.6           ~ 1 0
106 [FZD2017] 24 cor 17 12 42.67 -38 26 40.6           ~ 1 0
107 2MASS J17124278-3830321 cor 17 12 42.781 -38 30 32.11           ~ 1 0
108 [FZD2017] 126 cor 17 12 43.11 -38 29 08.3           ~ 1 0
109 [FZD2017] 265 cor 17 12 43.30 -38 31 27.6           ~ 1 0
110 SSTGLMC G348.3624+00.4728 Y*O 17 12 43.4546 -38 22 24.905           ~ 3 0
111 [DZS2009] 88 Y*O 17 12 43.5425 -38 23 24.684           ~ 3 0
112 [FZD2017] 305 cor 17 12 45.04 -38 25 38.4           ~ 1 0
113 [FZD2017] 189 cor 17 12 45.08 -38 27 22.5           ~ 1 0
114 [FZD2017] 48 cor 17 12 45.39 -38 22 50.4           ~ 1 0
115 2MASS J17124603-3825247 Y*O 17 12 46.034 -38 25 24.72           ~ 6 0
116 [DZS2009] 101 Y*O 17 12 46.1426 -38 20 53.265           ~ 2 0
117 [FZD2017] 282 cor 17 12 46.74 -38 28 46.7           ~ 1 0
118 [FZD2017] 134 cor 17 12 46.80 -38 29 04.2           ~ 1 0
119 [FZD2017] 260 cor 17 12 47.88 -38 20 54.1           ~ 1 0
120 [FZD2017] 329 cor 17 12 50.19 -38 24 45.4           ~ 1 0
121 V* V615 Sco AB* 17 12 52.3000437696 -38 17 23.728506648           O-rich 5 0
122 [FZD2017] 277 cor 17 12 52.81 -38 27 56.8           ~ 1 0
123 SSTGLMC G348.3889+00.4494 Y*O 17 12 54.02112 -38 21 57.1464           ~ 3 0
124 [FZD2017] 248 cor 17 12 54.48 -38 29 08.2           ~ 1 0
125 2MASS J17130289-3821048 cor 17 13 02.8952359608 -38 21 04.790651904           ~ 1 0
126 2MASS J17130369-3819512 cor 17 13 03.6854918256 -38 19 51.246606648           ~ 1 0
127 [FZD2017] 112 cor 17 13 10.03 -38 27 51.6           ~ 1 0
128 [FZD2017] 34 cor 17 13 11.76 -38 17 07.5           ~ 1 0
129 [FZD2017] 167 cor 17 13 12.63 -38 31 08.6           ~ 1 0
130 IRAS 17098-3812 AB* 17 13 13.6861809768 -38 16 18.468880284           O-rich 4 0
131 NGC 6334 HII 17 20 51 -36 06.9           ~ 642 0
132 SH 2-104 HII 20 24 37 +38 31.9           ~ 96 0

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2022.08.15-13:57:34

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