2017A&A...600A..99M


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.08.09CEST04:26:18

2017A&A...600A..99M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 600A, 99-99 (2017/4-1)

Outflows, infall and evolution of a sample of embedded low-mass protostars. The William Herschel Line Legacy (WILL) survey.

MOTTRAM J.C., VAN DISHOECK E.F., KRISTENSEN L.E., KARSKA A., SAN JOSE-GARCIA I., KHANNA S., HERCZEG G.J., ANDRE P., BONTEMPS S., CABRIT S., CARNEY M.T., DROZDOVSKAYA M.N., DUNHAM M.M., EVANS N.J., FEDELE D., GREEN J.D., HARSONO D., JOHNSTONE D., JORGENSEN J.K., KONYVES V., NISINI B., PERSSON M.V., TAFALLA M., VISSER R. and YILDIZ U.A.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. Herschel observations of water and highly excited CO (J>9) have allowed the physical and chemical conditions in the more active parts of protostellar outflows to be quantified in detail for the first time. However, to date, the studied samples of Class 0/I protostars in nearby star-forming regions have been selected from bright, well-known sources and have not been large enough for statistically significant trends to be firmly established.
Aims. We aim to explore the relationships between the outflow, envelope and physical properties of a flux-limited sample of embedded low-mass Class 0/I protostars.
Methods. We present spectroscopic observations in H2O, CO and related species with Herschel HIFI and PACS, as well as ground-based follow-up with the JCMT and APEX in CO, HCO+ and isotopologues, of a sample of 49 nearby (d<500pc) candidate protostars selected from Spitzer and Herschel photometric surveys of the Gould Belt. This more than doubles the sample of sources observed by the WISH and DIGIT surveys. These data are used to study the outflow and envelope properties of these sources. We also compile their continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the near-IR to mm wavelengths in order to constrain their physical properties (e.g. Lbol, Tbol and Menv).
Results. Water emission is dominated by shocks associated with the outflow, rather than the cooler, slower entrained outflowing gas probed by ground-based CO observations. These shocks become less energetic as sources evolve from Class 0 to ClassI. Outflow force, measured from low-J CO, also decreases with source evolutionary stage, while the fraction of mass in the outflow relative to the total envelope (i.e. Mout/Menv) remains broadly constant between Class 0 andI. The median value of ∼1% is consistent with a core to star formation efficiency on the order of 50% and an outflow duty cycle on the order of 5%. Entrainment efficiency, as probed by FCO/Macc, is also invariant with source properties and evolutionary stage. The median value implies a velocity at the wind launching radius of 6.3km/s, which in turn suggests an entrainment efficiency of between 30 and 60% if the wind is launched at ∼1AU, or close to 100% if launched further out. L[OI] is strongly correlated with Lbol but not with Menv, in contrast to low-J CO, which is more closely correlated with the latter than the former. This suggests that [OI] traces the present-day accretion activity of the source while CO traces time-averaged accretion over the dynamical timescale of the outflow. H2O is more strongly correlated with Menv than Lbol, but the difference is smaller than low-J CO, consistent with water emission primarily tracing actively shocked material between the wind, traced by [OI], and the entrained molecular outflow, traced by low-J CO. L[OI] does not vary from Class 0 to ClassI, unlike CO and H2O. This is likely due to the ratio of atomic to molecular gas in the wind increasing as the source evolves, balancing out the decrease in mass accretion rate.Infall signatures are detected in HCO+ and H2O in a few sources, but still remain surprisingly illusive in single-dish observations.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: protostars - ISM: jets and outflows - surveys - surveys

Simbad objects: 64

goto Full paper

goto View the reference in ADS

Number of rows : 64

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME LDN 1448 IRS 2 Y*O 03 25 22.32 +30 45 13.9           ~ 119 0
2 LDN 1448NA smm 03 25 36.49 +30 45 22.2           ~ 171 1
3 IRAS 03235+3004 Y*O 03 26 37.425 +30 15 28.39           ~ 70 0
4 IRAS 03255+3103 Y*O 03 28 37.068 +31 13 31.00           ~ 78 1
5 SSTc2d J032857.3+311415 Y*? 03 28 57.3 +31 14 15           ~ 5 0
6 [SK2001] 1 Y*O 03 29 00.55 +31 12 00.8           ~ 51 1
7 2MASS J03290149+3120208 Y*O 03 29 01.492 +31 20 20.84           ~ 23 0
8 [LAL96] 213 Y*O 03 29 07.739 +31 21 57.52           ~ 47 0
9 [JJK2007] 23 Y*O 03 29 10.68 +31 18 20.6           ~ 31 1
10 [JCC87] IRAS 4B Y*O 03 29 12.058 +31 13 02.05           ~ 555 0
11 [JCC87] IRAS 4C Y*O 03 29 13.54 +31 13 58.2           ~ 84 1
12 IRAS 03267+3128 cor 03 29 51.82 +31 39 06.0           ~ 50 0
13 IRAS 03271+3013 cor 03 30 15.159 +30 23 49.38           ~ 60 0
14 IRAS 03282+3035 cor 03 31 20.98 +30 45 30.1           ~ 160 0
15 IRAS 03292+3039 cor 03 32 17.96 +30 49 47.5           ~ 59 0
16 [SDA2014] West50 Y*O 03 33 14.38 +31 07 10.9           ~ 26 1
17 [DCE2008] 093 cor 03 33 16.44 +31 06 52.5           ~ 35 0
18 SSTc2d J033327.2+310710 cor 03 33 27.29 +31 07 10.2           ~ 45 0
19 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1071 0
20 NAME Per Region reg 03 37 00.0 +31 15 00           ~ 230 0
21 HH 211 cor 03 43 56.52 +32 00 52.8           ~ 293 0
22 NAME IC 348 MMS cor 03 43 56.84 +32 03 04.7           ~ 66 1
23 IRAS 03407+3152 Y*O 03 43 59.649 +32 01 53.98           M0 30 1
24 SSTc2d J034444.0+320136 IR 03 44 43.955 +32 01 36.16           ~ 19 1
25 IRAS 04169+2702 Y*O 04 19 58.44936 +27 09 57.0672           K0-M4 102 1
26 IRAS 04181+2654 Y*O 04 21 11.46888 +27 01 09.4044           G0-M3 57 0
27 2MASS J04220069+2657324 Y*O 04 22 00.69744 +26 57 32.4864           ~ 26 0
28 2MASS J04270266+2605304 Y*O 04 27 02.66593 +26 05 30.3790           ~ 135 0
29 IRAS 04248+2612 Y*O 04 27 57.30696 +26 19 18.3036           M 143 0
30 IRAS 04264+2433 Y*O 04 29 30.08016 +24 39 55.0548   18.40   16.73 14.67 ~ 36 0
31 IRAS 04295+2251 Y*O 04 32 32.05488 +22 57 26.6724           K0-M4 86 0
32 IRAS 04325+2402 Y*O 04 35 35.39160 +24 08 19.4244           ~ 150 0
33 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3502 0
34 NAME Orion Bright Bar reg 05 35 22.30 -05 24 33.0           ~ 719 0
35 NAME Cha I MoC 11 06 48 -77 18.0           ~ 973 1
36 V* GM Cha Or* 11 09 28.55424 -76 33 28.1376           M3.5-M6.5 41 0
37 NAME Cha II MoC 12 54 -77.2           ~ 296 0
38 2MASS J12590656-7707401 Y*O 12 59 06.56 -77 07 40.1           K4.5 47 0
39 SSTc2d J162659.1-243503 Y*? 16 26 59.10 -24 35 03.3           ~ 11 0
40 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3037 0
41 WLY 2-67 Y*O 16 32 00.99624 -24 56 41.9640           ~ 55 0
42 2MASS J16465826-0935197 Y*O 16 46 58.267 -09 35 19.72   19.6 17.4     ~ 32 0
43 NAME Scorpius Complex reg 16 51 00.0 -25 20 00           ~ 38 0
44 MHO 3260 Y*O 18 29 03.9 -01 39 06           ~ 7 0
45 [MAM2011] Aqu-MM4 Y*O 18 29 08.60 -01 30 42.8           ~ 4 0
46 [MAM2011] SerpS-MM1 Y*O 18 29 37.70 -01 50 57.8           ~ 3 0
47 NAME Serpens Cloud SFR 18 29 49 +01 14.8           ~ 918 2
48 [MAM2011] SerpS-MM18 Y*O 18 30 04.13 -02 03 02.1           ~ 13 0
49 [MAM2011] Aqu-MM6 Y*O 18 30 25.10 -01 54 13.4           ~ 3 0
50 [MAM2011] Aqu-MM7 Y*O 18 30 28.63 -01 56 47.7           ~ 3 0
51 [ZFW2015] 29 Y*O 18 30 29.03 -01 56 05.4           ~ 5 0
52 [MAM2011] Aqu-MM14 Y*O 18 30 49.94 -01 56 06.1           ~ 4 0
53 [MAM2011] W40-MM3 Y*O 18 31 09.42 -02 06 24.5           ~ 4 0
54 [MAM2011] W40-MM5 cor 18 31 10.31 -02 03 49.9           ~ 5 0
55 LBN 028.77+03.43 HII 18 31 26.5 -02 04 22           ~ 188 2
56 [MAM2011] W40-MM26 Y*O 18 31 46.54 -02 04 22.5           ~ 4 0
57 [MAM2011] W40-MM27 Y*O 18 31 46.78 -02 02 19.9           ~ 4 0
58 [MAM2011] W40-MM28 Y*O 18 31 47.90 -02 01 37.2           ~ 3 0
59 [MAM2011] W40-MM34 cor 18 31 57.24 -02 00 27.7           ~ 4 0
60 NAME Aql Rift DNe 18 32 -01.0           ~ 235 1
61 SSTgbs J1832131-015730 Y*O 18 32 13.15 -01 57 30.1           ~ 6 0
62 NAME CrA Dark Cloud MoC 19 01 51 -36 58.9           ~ 397 0
63 NAME Aql Region reg ~ ~           ~ 306 0
64 NAME Gould Belt PoG ~ ~           ~ 713 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:objects in 2017A&A...600A..99M and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu


2020.08.09-04:26:18

© Université de Strasbourg/CNRS

    • Contact