2017A&A...606A.100L


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.11.29CET07:15:17

2017A&A...606A.100L - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 606A, 100-100 (2017/10-1)

HP2 survey. III. The California Molecular Cloud: A sleeping giant revisited.

LADA C.J., LEWIS J.A., LOMBARDI M. and ALVES J.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present new high resolution and dynamic range dust column density and temperature maps of the California Molecular Cloud derived from a combination of Planck and Herschel dust-emission maps, and 2MASS NIR dust-extinction maps. We used these data to determine the ratio of the 2.2µm extinction coefficient to the 850µm opacity and found the value to be close to that found in similar studies of the Orion B and Perseus clouds but higher than that characterizing the Orion A cloud, indicating that variations in the fundamental optical properties of dust may exist between local clouds. We show that over a wide range of extinction, the column density probability distribution function (pdf) of the cloud can be well described by a simple power law (i.e., PDFN∝AK–n) with an index (n=4.0±0.1) that represents a steeper decline with AK than found (n~=3) in similar studies of the Orion and Perseus clouds. Using only the protostellar population of the cloud and our extinction maps we investigate the Schmidt relation, that is, the relation between the protostellar surface density, Σ*, and extinction, AK, within the cloud. We show that Σ* is directly proportional to the ratio of the protostellar and cloud pdfs, i.e., PDF*(AK)/PDFN(AK). We use the cumulative distribution of protostars to infer the functional forms for both Σ* and PDF*. We find that Σ* is best described by two power-law functions. At extinctions AK≤2.5mag, Σ*∝AKβ with β=3.3 while at higher extinctions β=2.5, both values steeper than those (~=2) found in other local giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We find that PDF* is a declining function of extinction also best described by two power-laws whose behavior mirrors that of Σ*. Our observations suggest that variations both in the slope of the Schmidt relation and in the sizes of the protostellar populations between GMCs are largely driven by variations in the slope, n, of PDFN(AK). This confirms earlier studies suggesting that cloud structure plays a major role in setting the global star formation rates in GMCs

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - dust, extinction - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual objects: California Molecular Cloud - ISM: individual objects: California Molecular Cloud

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/606/A100): tablea1.dat>

Simbad objects: 184

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Number of rows : 184

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1093 0
2 IRAS 03580+4053 Y*O 04 01 24.55 +41 01 49.0           ~ 8 0
3 2MASS J04013435+4111431 Y*O 04 01 34.353 +41 11 43.11           ~ 3 0
4 IRAS 03591+4034 LP? 04 02 29.8218327752 +40 42 41.831721464           ~ 3 0
5 NGC 1499 HII 04 03 18 +36 25.3           ~ 153 0
6 IRAS 04056+4011 Y*? 04 09 02.151 +40 19 13.43           ~ 6 0
7 [HFG2013] 2 FIR 04 09 54.71 +40 06 39.9           ~ 2 0
8 NAME California Molecular Cloud MoC 04 10.0 +39 00           ~ 100 1
9 SSTgbs J0410006+400236 Y*O 04 10 00.64 +40 02 36.1           ~ 3 0
10 [HFG2013] 3 Y*O 04 10 02.63 +40 02 48.2           ~ 4 0
11 IRAS 04066+3857 LP? 04 10 03.4267337351 +39 04 49.165800960       15.03   ~ 2 0
12 [HFG2013] 4 FIR 04 10 04.53 +40 02 37.5           ~ 2 0
13 2MASS J04100563+4002386 Y*O 04 10 05.630 +40 02 38.70           ~ 4 0
14 [HFG2013] 6 FIR 04 10 07.08 +40 02 34.6           ~ 2 0
15 IRAS 04067+3954 Y*O 04 10 08.41 +40 02 24.4           ~ 12 0
16 SSTgbs J0410111+400126 Y*O 04 10 11.16 +40 01 26.2           ~ 4 0
17 SSTgbs J04102441+3805227 Y*? 04 10 24.4214228400 +38 05 22.816284697           ~ 2 0
18 2MASS J04104050+3805004 Y*O 04 10 40.5159105161 +38 05 00.568155081           ~ 3 0
19 PP 13 Em* 04 10 41.09 +38 07 54.5           ~ 50 3
20 2MASS J04104163+3808059 Y*O 04 10 41.6387455732 +38 08 05.798223696           ~ 5 0
21 HD 26255 Y*O 04 10 42.1069984489 +38 06 00.002083515   9.12 8.71 8.47   A3 9 0
22 2MASS J04104760+3803339 Y*O 04 10 47.6104874728 +38 03 33.868155389           ~ 3 0
23 [BMH2014] 13 Em* 04 10 49.1639487709 +38 04 45.843060016     15.1     ~ 6 0
24 2MASS J04120847+3801466 Y*? 04 12 08.4896515491 +38 01 46.587682625   11.82 11.17     ~ 2 0
25 [HFG2013] 11 FIR 04 12 40.54 +38 14 26.8           ~ 2 0
26 IRAS 04095+3906 LP? 04 12 57.6927073569 +39 14 18.166668736           ~ 2 0
27 SSTgbs J04134457+3904357 Y*? 04 13 44.5807088163 +39 04 35.681960574           ~ 2 0
28 SSTgbs J04151120+3839571 Y*? 04 15 11.2775791010 +38 39 57.125554829           ~ 2 0
29 SSTgbs J04155405+3834131 Y*? 04 15 54.0749634921 +38 34 13.226566571           ~ 2 0
30 IRAS 04137+3714 LP? 04 17 06.0027851244 +37 22 19.083393385       14.28   ~ 2 0
31 2MASS J04194468+3811218 Y*O 04 19 44.6742081921 +38 11 21.908056082           ~ 3 0
32 2MASS J04205247+3806358 Y*O 04 20 52.4664785056 +38 06 35.734728381           ~ 3 0
33 IRAS 04182+3727 Y*O 04 21 37.9602717296 +37 34 41.813236831           ~ 8 0
34 2MASS J04213808+3735410 Y*O 04 21 38.087 +37 35 41.07           ~ 3 0
35 SSTgbs J0421408+373359 Y*O 04 21 40.80 +37 33 59.0           ~ 4 0
36 2MASS J04230550+3807369 Y*? 04 23 05.5053308140 +38 07 36.874770688   12.13 11.76     ~ 2 0
37 2MASS J04244934+3716464 Y*O 04 24 49.3434174721 +37 16 46.419257605           ~ 3 0
38 [HFG2013] 14 FIR 04 24 59.04 +37 17 52.9           ~ 2 0
39 IRAS 04218+3708 FIR 04 25 07.83 +37 15 19.3           ~ 3 0
40 SSTgbs J04253848+3707012 Y*O 04 25 38.48 +37 07 01.2           ~ 4 0
41 2MASS J04253980+3707082 Y*O 04 25 39.804 +37 07 08.25           ~ 10 0
42 SSTgbs J04271374+3627107 Y*? 04 27 13.7387456978 +36 27 10.804421144           ~ 2 0
43 2MASS J04275080+3631263 Y*O 04 27 50.8081211379 +36 31 26.344638466           ~ 3 0
44 2MASS J04275826+3633265 Y*O 04 27 58.2671235206 +36 33 26.469728227           ~ 3 0
45 2MASS J04280290+3640587 Y*O 04 28 02.907 +36 40 58.73           ~ 3 0
46 2MASS J04281516+3630286 Y*O 04 28 15.162 +36 30 28.61           ~ 3 0
47 2MASS J04282117+3624478 Y*O 04 28 21.1762496502 +36 24 47.730722677           ~ 3 0
48 2MASS J04282136+3630215 Y*O 04 28 21.3654298123 +36 30 21.418874074           ~ 3 0
49 2MASS J04283510+3625065 Y*O 04 28 35.104 +36 25 06.51           ~ 4 0
50 2MASS J04283790+3624552 Y*O 04 28 37.9108607152 +36 24 55.148781648           ~ 4 0
51 2MASS J04283861+3625287 Y*O 04 28 38.612 +36 25 28.72           ~ 4 0
52 2MASS J04284335+3625116 Y*O 04 28 43.3577679250 +36 25 11.653539352           ~ 3 0
53 SSTgbs J04284367+3628393 Y*O 04 28 43.67 +36 28 39.3           ~ 3 0
54 2MASS J04284442+3624456 Y*O 04 28 44.426 +36 24 45.63           ~ 3 0
55 2MASS J04284958+3629108 Y*O 04 28 49.590 +36 29 10.81           ~ 3 0
56 IRAS 04256+3624 Y*O 04 28 55.318 +36 31 22.65           ~ 6 0
57 [BMH2014] 151 Y*? 04 28 55.56 +35 24 46.0           ~ 2 0
58 2MASS J04285911+3623112 EB* 04 28 59.1211639393 +36 23 11.082565621     15.18     ~ 4 0
59 SSTgbs J04291153+3504495 Y*? 04 29 11.5614029871 +35 04 49.651711190           ~ 3 0
60 SSTgbs J04291438+3515245 Y*? 04 29 14.4452274852 +35 15 24.399940716           ~ 2 0
61 2MASS J04293900+3516106 Y*O 04 29 38.9998929663 +35 16 10.764896902           K8.0 5 0
62 2MASS J04294001+3521088 Y*O 04 29 40.0460245889 +35 21 09.202231526           M0.0 4 0
63 2MASS J04294357+3513386 Y*O 04 29 43.5668749200 +35 13 38.781066976           M1.5 5 0
64 2MASS J04294419+3512301 Y*O 04 29 44.1981706980 +35 12 30.211433287           M5.0 5 0
65 SSTgbs J04294628+3619235 Y*? 04 29 46.2607917998 +36 19 23.620622969           ~ 2 0
66 2MASS J04294727+3510192 Y*O 04 29 47.2794035325 +35 10 19.307962323           M3.0 5 0
67 2MASS J04294741+3511335 Y*O 04 29 47.4106469841 +35 11 33.633597536           M3.5 5 0
68 2MASS J04294853+3512125 Y*O 04 29 48.540 +35 12 12.58           M7.0 5 0
69 2MASS J04294921+3514227 Y*O 04 29 49.2068181886 +35 14 22.824912520           ~ 6 0
70 2MASS J04294960+3514439 Y*O 04 29 49.606 +35 14 43.92           ~ 6 0
71 [BMH2014] 136 Y*O 04 29 50.1483149874 +35 14 44.657669892           ~ 3 0
72 2MASS J04295083+3515579 Y*O 04 29 50.832 +35 15 57.99           ~ 6 0
73 2MASS J04295099+3515476 Y*O 04 29 50.994 +35 15 47.61           ~ 6 0
74 2MASS J04295253+3522237 Y*? 04 29 52.5296090882 +35 22 23.695017658 14.29 13.73 12.65     B7 4 0
75 2MASS J04295344+3515486 Y*O 04 29 53.4448494459 +35 15 48.650599988           M5.0 5 0
76 SSTgbs J0429541+351021 Y*O 04 29 54.16 +35 10 21.7           M9.0 5 0
77 IRAS 04265+3605 Y*? 04 29 54.25344 +36 11 56.7600           ~ 4 0
78 2MASS J04295478+3518025 Y*O 04 29 54.7805850155 +35 18 02.628305239           M1.5 6 0
79 SSTgbs J0429562+351742 Em* 04 29 56.276 +35 17 43.02           M3 6 0
80 [BMH2014] 157 Y*? 04 29 59.2109556195 +36 10 15.941400194           ~ 3 0
81 V* V345 Per Or* 04 29 59.7651987929 +35 13 34.210124347   19.86 17.35 15.93 13.94 K7.5 9 0
82 2MASS J04300015+3603226 Y*O 04 30 00.1666487587 +36 03 22.674995715           ~ 3 0
83 HBC 390 Em* 04 30 01.1441695457 +35 17 24.506817783   18.37 16.28 14.89 13.12 M0 22 0
84 SSTgbs J04300152+3607333 Y*? 04 30 01.5310582734 +36 07 33.165126185           ~ 2 0
85 SSTgbs J04300188+3538147 Y*? 04 30 01.9490438432 +35 38 14.123000368           ~ 3 0
86 2MASS J04300261+3515142 Y*O 04 30 02.6084230776 +35 15 14.241157216   22.42 19.60 17.65 15.39 M3.0 11 0
87 2MASS J04300362+3514201 Y*O 04 30 03.622 +35 14 20.19           ~ 6 0
88 2MASS J04300423+3509460 Y*O 04 30 04.2320244379 +35 09 45.835990978           ~ 3 0
89 2MASS J04300424+3522238 Y*O 04 30 04.2396917274 +35 22 23.863631531     16.10 16.53   M0 9 0
90 [BMH2014] 59 Em* 04 30 07.4193223602 +35 14 57.989926730   20.63 18.32 16.71 14.91 K7.5 7 0
91 [BMH2014] 60 Em* 04 30 07.7156970210 +35 15 48.498610566   22.47 20.24 18.38 16.24 ~ 7 0
92 2MASS J04300824+3514101 Y*O 04 30 08.242 +35 14 10.15           ~ 6 0
93 [BMH2014] 62 Em* 04 30 08.7397653371 +35 14 37.674141291   21.81 19.00 17.15 15.04 K7.5 6 0
94 2MASS J04300951+3514402 Y*O 04 30 09.514 +35 14 40.26       22.17 19.58 ~ 5 0
95 2MASS J04300980+3540355 Y*O 04 30 09.7982170340 +35 40 35.613888911           ~ 5 0
96 [BMH2014] 137 Em* 04 30 09.8517276770 +35 14 16.385837744     21.97 19.83 17.95 K2 5 0
97 SSTgbs J04300980+3613354 Y*? 04 30 09.8547900288 +36 13 35.004743479           ~ 2 0
98 SSTgbs J0430099+351553 Em* 04 30 09.888 +35 15 54.06   21.28 18.85 18.85 14.66 ~ 6 0
99 NGC 1579 HII 04 30 11 +35 16.7           ~ 73 1
100 2MASS J04301234+3509345 Y*O 04 30 12.341 +35 09 34.60           ~ 3 0
101 [BMH2014] 67 Em* 04 30 13.0773452598 +35 13 58.623409969   15.24 13.85 12.97   F6 6 0
102 EM* LkHA 101 Em* 04 30 14.438 +35 16 24.03   17.91 15.71 13.33   F 301 1
103 2MASS J04301451+3513326 Y*O 04 30 14.520 +35 13 32.67           ~ 5 0
104 2MASS J04301473+3520142 Y*O 04 30 14.7297579676 +35 20 14.293487396           ~ 5 0
105 SSTgbs J0430149+360008 Y*O 04 30 14.95 +36 00 08.5           ~ 4 0
106 2MASS J04301521+3516400 Y*O 04 30 15.1968842792 +35 16 40.055973303           ~ 5 0
107 IRAS 04269+3550 Y*O 04 30 15.750 +35 56 57.89           ~ 10 0
108 2MASS J04301628+3542430 Y*O 04 30 16.2588539220 +35 42 43.017510330           ~ 3 0
109 2MASS J04301784+3603266 Y*O 04 30 17.8554887465 +36 03 26.665853546           ~ 4 0
110 2MASS J04301808+3545389 Y*O 04 30 18.0804833263 +35 45 38.946549632           ~ 3 0
111 2MASS J04301898+3542119 Y*O 04 30 18.9784726671 +35 42 11.882609169           ~ 3 0
112 2MASS J04301958+3508215 Y*O 04 30 19.589 +35 08 21.60           ~ 4 0
113 2MASS J04302218+3604358 Y*O 04 30 22.188 +36 04 35.87           ~ 3 0
114 2MASS J04302267+3519081 Y*O 04 30 22.676 +35 19 08.13           M9.0 5 0
115 2MASS J04302380+3521122 Y*O 04 30 23.8164329388 +35 21 12.375484240           ~ 5 0
116 2MASS J04302433+3459165 Y*O 04 30 24.332 +34 59 16.56           ~ 3 0
117 2MASS J04302467+3545204 Y*O 04 30 24.678 +35 45 20.43           ~ 4 0
118 2MASS J04302504+3543180 Y*O 04 30 25.0383226424 +35 43 18.038827992           ~ 3 0
119 2MASS J04302590+3548113 Y*O 04 30 25.905 +35 48 11.39           ~ 3 0
120 2MASS J04302701+3520285 Y*O 04 30 27.0223705646 +35 20 28.290309475           ~ 5 0
121 2MASS J04302705+3545505 Y*O 04 30 27.0439215772 +35 45 50.466314892           ~ 4 0
122 IRAS 04271+3502 Y*O 04 30 27.359 +35 09 18.50           ~ 11 0
123 2MASS J04302776+3546149 Y*O 04 30 27.767 +35 46 14.91           ~ 4 0
124 LkHa101SST J043028.13+350916.0 Y*O 04 30 28.13 +35 09 16.0           ~ 4 0
125 2MASS J04302843+3532419 Y*O 04 30 28.4273915043 +35 32 41.966857042           ~ 4 0
126 2MASS J04302844+3549176 Y*O 04 30 28.4359270124 +35 49 17.698178450           ~ 3 0
127 2MASS J04302862+3547407 Y*O 04 30 28.625 +35 47 40.77           ~ 3 0
128 2MASS J04302872+3547498 Y*O 04 30 28.722 +35 47 49.88           ~ 3 0
129 2MASS J04302898+3507539 Y*O 04 30 28.989 +35 07 53.99           ~ 3 0
130 2MASS J04302961+3527172 Y*O 04 30 29.5980674053 +35 27 17.364167724           ~ 3 0
131 2MASS J04302966+3506390 Y*O 04 30 29.6605317025 +35 06 39.052664895           ~ 3 0
132 LkHa101SST J043030.10+350639.1 Y*O 04 30 30.1423481586 +35 06 39.200230497           ~ 6 0
133 2MASS J04303028+3521040 Y*O 04 30 30.283 +35 21 04.00           K2.5 5 0
134 [BMH2014] 98 Em* 04 30 30.4318811956 +35 18 33.730210571     22.05 20.19 17.53 M4.0 6 0
135 [BMH2014] 99 Em* 04 30 30.5098712452 +35 17 44.842059075     21.74 20.07 18.01 ~ 6 0
136 2MASS J04303064+3551441 Y*O 04 30 30.643 +35 51 44.12           ~ 4 0
137 [HFG2013] 36 Y*O 04 30 31.58 +35 45 13.7           ~ 4 0
138 IRAS 04272+3529 Y*O 04 30 32.3609002814 +35 36 13.295766428       15.94   K7 9 0
139 IRAS 04273+3548 Y*O 04 30 36.80 +35 54 36.2           ~ 5 0
140 2MASS J04303739+3600180 Y*O 04 30 37.4036241024 +36 00 18.154742454           ~ 3 0
141 2MASS J04303751+3513486 Y*O 04 30 37.5100788575 +35 13 48.635243744           M3.5 4 0
142 AKARI-IRC-V1 J0430375+355031 TT? 04 30 37.562 +35 50 32.09           ~ 6 0
143 SSTgbs J0430378+355101 Y*O 04 30 37.89 +35 51 01.4           ~ 4 0
144 2MASS J04303831+3549591 Y*O 04 30 38.317 +35 49 59.20           ~ 5 0
145 [HFG2013] 42 FIR 04 30 38.38 +35 50 22.6           ~ 2 0
146 2MASS J04303864+3554392 Y*O 04 30 38.649 +35 54 39.23           ~ 4 0
147 2MASS J04303911+3544497 Y*O 04 30 39.1108777088 +35 44 49.820410838           ~ 3 0
148 2MASS J04303916+3552038 Y*O 04 30 39.1689356850 +35 52 03.819674581           ~ 4 0
149 2MASS J04303932+3552006 Y*O 04 30 39.3242345694 +35 52 00.633520521           ~ 3 0
150 2MASS J04303955+3518069 Y*O 04 30 39.5522429377 +35 18 06.988758313           ~ 5 0
151 2MASS J04303958+3511128 Y*O 04 30 39.5844624793 +35 11 12.859208285           M5.5 5 0
152 2MASS J04304004+3542101 Y*O 04 30 40.041 +35 42 10.18       15.76   K7 6 0
153 2MASS J04304014+3531340 Y*O 04 30 40.1454253850 +35 31 34.091619785           ~ 4 0
154 SSTgbs J0430411+352941 Y*O 04 30 41.16 +35 29 41.0           ~ 4 0
155 SSTgbs J0430442+355951 Y*O 04 30 44.23 +35 59 51.1           ~ 3 0
156 2MASS J04304468+3510520 Y*O 04 30 44.6936715401 +35 10 52.119353726           ~ 3 0
157 2MASS J04304558+3458080 Y*O 04 30 45.5843771877 +34 58 08.022955251           ~ 3 0
158 SSTgbs J0430462+345856 Y*O 04 30 46.25 +34 58 56.2           ~ 4 0
159 2MASS J04304723+3507431 Y*O 04 30 47.2369391602 +35 07 43.145532069           ~ 5 0
160 2MASS J04304756+3458242 Y*O 04 30 47.565 +34 58 24.25           ~ 3 0
161 [HFG2013] 49 FIR 04 30 47.90 +34 58 37.3           ~ 2 0
162 IRAS 04275+3531 Y*O 04 30 48.565 +35 37 53.46           ~ 12 0
163 IRAS 04275+3452 Y*O 04 30 48.6175347252 +34 58 53.491127038           ~ 8 0
164 2MASS J04304922+3456103 Y*O 04 30 49.2312515107 +34 56 10.184399517           ~ 4 0
165 [BMH2014] 161 Y*? 04 30 49.33 +34 50 46.0           ~ 2 0
166 2MASS J04304934+3536419 Y*O 04 30 49.345 +35 36 41.95           ~ 3 0
167 SSTgbs J04304948+3450562 Y*? 04 30 49.4907085242 +34 50 56.342463063           ~ 2 0
168 V* V347 Per Or* 04 30 49.6916990632 +34 57 27.711030510           ~ 7 0
169 2MASS J04305056+3533235 Y*O 04 30 50.5676148151 +35 33 23.495315350           ~ 3 0
170 2MASS J04305097+3535548 Y*O 04 30 50.9707618843 +35 35 54.833363035           ~ 3 0
171 [BMH2014] 163 Y*? 04 30 52.0906111231 +34 50 08.931693998           ~ 3 0
172 SSTgbs J0430535+345627 Y*O 04 30 53.50 +34 56 27.4           ~ 4 0
173 2MASS J04305391+3530109 Y*O 04 30 53.9103129073 +35 30 10.962040229           ~ 3 0
174 2MASS J04305501+3530561 Y*O 04 30 55.0154248205 +35 30 56.179074066           ~ 3 0
175 2MASS J04305599+3456478 Y*O 04 30 55.994 +34 56 47.89           ~ 4 0
176 SSTgbs J04305661+3530045 Y*O 04 30 56.61 +35 30 04.5           ~ 4 0
177 [HFG2013] 58 FIR 04 30 57.19 +34 53 53.6           ~ 2 0
178 [HFG2013] 59 FIR 04 31 14.67 +35 56 50.6           ~ 2 0
179 [BMH2014] 164 Y*? 04 32 05.8100676975 +36 06 37.490666304           ~ 2 0
180 SSTgbs J04325431+3604440 Y*? 04 32 54.3230144318 +36 04 44.036172511           ~ 2 0
181 SSTgbs J04330315+3602045 Y*? 04 33 03.1692585573 +36 02 04.357586455           ~ 2 0
182 [HFG2013] 60 FIR 04 34 53.15 +36 23 27.9           ~ 2 0
183 NAME Ori A MoC 05 38 -07.1           ~ 2705 0
184 NAME Ori B MoC 05 41 43.0 -01 54 44           ~ 1189 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.11.29-07:15:17

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