2017A&A...608A..56G


Query : 2017A&A...608A..56G

2017A&A...608A..56G - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 608A, 56-56 (2017/12-1)

ALMA imaging of C2H emission in the disk of NGC 1068.

GARCIA-BURILLO S., VITI S., COMBES F., FUENTE A., USERO A., HUNT L.K., MARTIN S., KRIPS M., AALTO S., ALADRO R., RAMOS ALMEIDA C., ALONSO-HERRERO A., CASASOLA V., HENKEL C., QUEREJETA M., NERI R., COSTAGLIOLA F., TACCONI L.J. and VAN DER WERF P.P.

Abstract (from CDS):

Aims. We study the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity on the chemistry of molecular gas in NGC 1068, a nearby (D=14Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing whether the abundances of key molecular species such as ethynyl (C2H), which is a classical tracer of photon dominated regions (PDR), change in the different environments of the disk of the galaxy.
Methods. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the hyperfine multiplet of C2H(N=1-0) and its underlying continuum emission in the central r~=35'' (2.5kpc) region of the disk of NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution 1.0x0.7 (~= 50-70pc). We used maps of the dust continuum emission obtained at 349GHz by ALMA to derive the H2 gas column densities and combined these with the C2H map at matched spatial resolution to estimate the fractional abundance of this species. We developed a set of time-dependent chemical models, which include shocks, gas-phase PDRs, and gas-grain chemical models to determine the origin of the C2H gas.
Results. A sizeable fraction of the total C2H line emission is detected from the r~=1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring, which is a region that concentrates the bulk of the recent massive star formation in the disk traced by the Paα emission complexes imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, the brightest C2H emission originates from a r~=200pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), where evidence of a molecular outflow has been previously found in other molecular tracers imaged by ALMA. We also detect significant emission that connects the CND with the outer disk in a region that probes the interface between the molecular disk and ionized gas outflow out to r~=400pc. We derived the fractional abundances of C2H (X(C2H)) assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions and a set of excitation temperatures (Tex) constrained by the previous multiline CO studies of the galaxy. Our estimates range from X(C2H)~=a few 10–8 in the SB ring up to X(C2H)~=a few 10–7 in the outflow region. The PDR models that incorporate gas-grain chemistry are able to account for X(C2H) in the SB ring for moderately dense (n(H2)≥104cm–3) and moderately UV-irradiated gas (UV-field ≤10 x Draine field, where 1 Draine field ∼2.74x10–3erg/s/cm2) in a steady-state regime, which depending on the initial and physical conditions of the gas may be achieved by 105yr or as late as 107yr. However, the high fractional abundances estimated for C2H in the outflow region can only be reached at very early times (T≤102–3yr) in models of UV or X-ray irradiated dense gas (n(H2)≥104–5cm–3).
Conclusions. We find that the transient conditions required to fit the high values of X(C2H) in the outflow are likely due to UV or X-ray irradiated non-dissociative shocks associated with the highly turbulent interface between the outflow and molecular gas in NGC 1068. Although the inferred local timescales are short, the erosion of molecular clouds by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) wind and/or the jet likely resupplies the interface working surface continuously, making a nearly steady state persist in the disk of the galaxy.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: individual: NGC 1068 - galaxies: ISM - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: nuclei - galaxies: Seyfert - radio lines: galaxies - radio lines: galaxies

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.771 -00 00 47.84 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4251 2

Query : 2017A&A...608A..56G

Basic data :
M 77 -- Galaxy in Pair of Galaxies
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
GiP (), Rad (BWE,3C,...), G (2011MNRAS,APG,...), X (1AXG,2E,...), AGN (2011ApJ,[HB91],...), gam (1FGL,2FGL,...), IR (IRAS,ISOSS,...), Sy2 (2012ApJ), V* (AAVSO), GiG ([CHM2007]), EmG (SINGG), QSO (QSO), cm (AT20G), HI (HIPASS)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
02 42 40.771 -00 00 47.84 (Infrared) [ ] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
02 40 07.113 -00 13 31.71 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
172.104011 -51.933614 [ ]
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) 1139.9 [~] / z(emission) 0.003810 [~] / cz 1142.08 [~]
   (Rad) C 2004MNRAS.350.1195M
Syntax of morphological type is : mtype quality bibcode
  • mtype : Hubble morphological class (spirals, ellipticals, etc)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the morphological type reference
Morphological type:
SAb C 2015ApJS..217...27A
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
6.92 6.03 72 (Opt) D 2003A&A...412...45P
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (13) :
U 9.70 [0.10] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
B 9.61 [0.10] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
V 8.87 [0.10] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
R 10.1 [~] D 2005MNRAS.361...34D
I 9.9 [~] D 2005MNRAS.361...34D
J 6.966 [0.015] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
H 6.258 [0.015] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
K 5.788 [0.016] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
u (AB) 14.94 [0.01] D 2009ApJS..182..543A
g (AB) 10.087 [0.005] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
r (AB) 9.498 [0.007] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
i (AB) 9.254 [0.007] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
z (AB) 11.574 [0.006] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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notes:


Hierarchy : number of linked objects
whatever the membership probability is (see description here ) :

: 6
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: 6
: 13 Display criteria :

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Identifiers (85) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

M 77 INTREF 128 PMN J0242-0000 XSS J02445-0000
APG 37 IRAS 02401-0013 PSCz Q02401-0013 9Y-MST J0242+0001
AT20G J024240-000046 IRAS F02401-0013 QSO B0240-002 Z 388-98
1AXG J024241-0000 ISOSS J02426-0000 RAFGL 4220 Z 0240.1-0013
BWE 0240-0013 1Jy 0240-002 RAFGL 4220S [CAB95] IRAS F02401-0013
3C 71 1Jy 0240-00 RBS 348 [CHM2007] HDC 163 J024240.77-0000478
3C 71.0 KUG 0240-002 1RXP J024240.9-000042 [CHM2007] LDC 174 J024240.77-0000478
4C -00.13 LEDA 10266 RX J024239-00000 [DML87] 57
3CR 71 LHE 67 RX J0242.6+0000 [HB91] 0240-002
Cul 0240-002 2MASX J02424077-0000478 1RXS J024240.9-000046 [KRL2007b] 25
DA 82 MCG+00-07-083 S3 0240-00 [M98c] 024006.5-001332
6dFGS gJ024240.7-000048 MITG J024240-0000 SDSS J024240.70-000047.9 [NKB95] N1068
2E 649 MRC 0240-002 SINGG HIPASS J0242+00 [SLK2004] 333
2E 0240.1-0013 MSH 02-0-14 SWIFT J0242.6+0000 [VV2000c] J024240.7-000047
1ES 0240-00.2 NGC 1068 SWIFT J0242.9-0000 [VV2003c] J024240.7-000047
1FGL J0242.7+0007 NRAO 112 TC 656 [VV2006c] J024240.7-000047
2FGL J0242.5+0006 NVSS J024240-000047 TXS 0240-002 [VV2010c] J024240.7-000047
3FGL J0242.7-0001 OHIO D -067 UGC 2188 [VV98c] J024240.7-000047
4FGL J0242.6-0000 PBC J0242.7-0000 UZC J024240.7-000048 AAVSO 0237-00
3FHL J0242.7-0002 PKS J0242-0000 VLSS J0242.6-0000
GRA B0240-00 PKS 0240-00 WB 0240-0013
HIPASS J0242+00 PKS 0240-002 2XMM J024240.7-000046

References (4251 between 1850 and 2021) (Total 4251)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Collections of Measurements


velocities : 17    distance : 8   

   

Observing logs


herschel : 60    ISO : 44    IUE : 49    XMM : 2   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : M 77

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

APG 37 BWE 0240-0013 3C 71 3C 71.0 4C -00.13
3CR 71 2E 649 HIPASS J0242+00 IRAS 02401-0013 IRAS F02401-0013
KUG 0240-002 2MASX J02424077-0000478 MITG J024240-0000 NGC 1068 NVSS J024240-000047
PKS J0242-0000 PKS 0240-00 PKS 0240-002 PMN J0242-0000 RAFGL 4220
RAFGL 4220S 1RXS J024240.9-000046 SDSS J024240.70-000047.9 UGC 2188 [DML87] 57

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