2018A&A...611A..12D


Query : 2018A&A...611A..12D

2018A&A...611A..12D - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 611A, 12-12 (2018/3-1)

INTEGRAL/SPI γ-rayline spectroscopy. Response and background characteristics.

DIEHL R., SIEGERT T., GREINER J., KRAUSE M., KRETSCHMER K., LANG M., PLEINTINGER M., STRONG A.W., WEINBERGER C. and ZHANG X.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. The space based γ-ray observatory INTEGRAL of the European Space Agency (ESA) includes the spectrometer instrument "SPI". This is a coded mask telescope featuring a 19-element Germanium detector array for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, encapsulated in a scintillation detector assembly that provides a veto for background from charged particles. In space, cosmic rays irradiate spacecraft and instruments, which, in spite of the vetoing detectors, results in a large instrumental background from activation of those materials, and leads to deterioration of the charge collection properties of the Ge detectors. Aim. We aim to determine the measurement characteristics of our detectors and their evolution with time, that is, their spectral response and instrumental background. These incur systematic variations in the SPI signal from celestial photons, hence their determination from a broad empirical database enables a reduction of underlying systematics in data analysis. For this, we explore compromises balancing temporal and spectral resolution within statistical limitations. Our goal is to enable modelling of background applicable to spectroscopic studies of the sky, accounting separately for changes of the spectral response and of instrumental background.
Methods. We use 13.5 years of INTEGRAL/SPI data, which consist of spectra for each detector and for each pointing of the satellite. Spectral fits to each such spectrum, with independent but coherent treatment of continuum and line backgrounds, provides us with details about separated background components. From the strongest background lines, we first determine how the spectral response changes with time. Applying symmetry and long-term stability tests, we eliminate degeneracies and reduce statistical fluctuations of background parameters, with the aim of providing a self-consistent description of the spectral response for each individual detector. Accounting for this, we then determine how the instrumental background components change in intensities and other characteristics, most-importantly their relative distribution among detectors.
Results. Spectral resolution of Ge detectors in space degrades with time, up to 15% within half a year, consistently for all detectors, and across the SPI energy range. Semi-annual annealing operations recover these losses, yet there is a small long-term degradation. The intensity of instrumental background varies anti-correlated to solar activity, in general. There are significant differences among different lines and with respect to continuum. Background lines are found to have a characteristic, well-defined and long-term consistent intensity ratio among detectors. We use this to categorise lines in groups of similar behaviour. The dataset of spectral-response and background parameters as fitted across the INTEGRAL mission allows studies of SPI spectral response and background behaviour in a broad perspective, and efficiently supports precision modelling of instrumental background.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2018

Journal keyword(s): gamma rays: general - instrumentation: detectors - techniques: spectroscopic - astroparticle physics - methods: statistical - methods: observational

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 V* V404 Cyg HXB 20 24 03.820 +33 52 01.90 14.50 14.20 12.7     K0IV 1147 0

Query : 2018A&A...611A..12D

Basic data :
V* V404 Cyg -- High Mass X-ray Binary
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
LXB (), V* (AN,V*,...), X (Ginga,1RXS), No* (NOVA), HXB (2016ApJS), IR (2MASS), gam (INTREF), BH? (2011BASI)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
20 24 03.820 +33 52 01.90 (Radio) [ 0.050 0.00 0 ] B 2009ApJ...706L.230M
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
20 22 06.309 +33 42 16.10 [ 0.050 0.00 0 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
073.118753 -02.091458 [ 0.050 0.00 0 ]
Spectral type is made of 3 parts: %coding is composed of 4 parts :
  • the spectral type, which is made of a temperature class, eventually a luminosity class (roman number) and/or spectral peculiarities;
  • a quality letter: A=best quality→E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality %
  • a quality letter: A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality
  • bibcode : bibcode of the spectral type reference
Spectral type:
K0IV D ~
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (6) :
U 14.50 [~] D 2007A&A...469..807L
B 14.20 [~] D 2007A&A...469..807L
V 12.7 [~] D 2007A&A...469..807L
J 13.575 [0.025] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
H 12.684 [0.027] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
K 12.321 [0.026] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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within arcsec The VizieR photometry tool allows for easy visualization of photometry points extracted around the Simbad position from photometry-enabled catalogues in VizieR.
The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).
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The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (11) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

2MASS J20240382+3352021 Ginga 2023+33 NOVA Cyg 1989 V* V404 Cyg
AN 100.1938 INTREF 1021 1RXS J202405.3+335157 AAVSO 2020+33
Ginga 2023+338 NOVA Cyg 1938 TIC 136874944

References (1147 between 1850 and 2021) (Total 1147)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Observing logs


ISO : 2    IUE : 4   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

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2MASS J20240382+3352021 1RXS J202405.3+335157 V* V404 Cyg

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2021.09.22-13:01:46

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