Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 616A, 101-101 (2018/8-1)
First hydrodynamics simulations of radiation forces and photoionization feedback in massive star formation.
KUIPER R. and HOSOKAWA T.
Abstract (from CDS):
Aims. We present the first simulations of the formation and feedback of massive stars which account for radiation forces as well as photoionization feedback (along with protostellar outflows). In two different accretion scenarios modeled, we determine the relative strength of these feedback components and derive the size of the reservoir from which the forming stars gained their masses. Methods. We performed direct hydrodynamics simulations of the gravitational collapse of high-density mass reservoirs toward the formation of massive stars including self-gravity, stellar evolution, protostellar outflows, continuum radiation transport, photoionization, and the potential impact of ram pressure from large-scale gravitational infall. For direct comparison, we executed these simulations with and without the individual feedback components. Results. Protostellar outflows alone limit the stellar mass growth only in an accretion scenario with a finite mass reservoir; when including accretion and ram pressure from large scales (>0.1pc), protostellar outflows do not limit stellar mass growth at all. Photoionization and HII regions dominate the feedback ladder only at later times, after the star has already contracted down to the zero-age main sequence, and only on large scales. Specifically, photoionization yields a broadening of the bipolar outflow cavities and a reduction of the gravitational infall momentum by about 50%, but does not limit the stellar mass accretion. On the other hand, we find radiation forces restrain the gravitational infall toward the circumstellar disk, impact the gravito-centrifugal equilibrium at the outer edge of the disk, and eventually shut down stellar accretion completely. The most massive star formed in the simulations accreted 95M☉ before disk destruction; this mass was drawn-in from an accretion reservoir of ~=240M☉ and ~=0.24pc in radius. Conclusions. In the regime of very massive stars, the final mass of these stars is controlled by their own radiation force feedback.