2018A&A...617A.137F


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.01.17CET16:47:08

2018A&A...617A.137F - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 617A, 137-137 (2018/9-1)

An ALMA 3 mm continuum census of Westerlund 1.

FENECH D.M., CLARK J.S., PRINJA R.K., DOUGHERTY S., NAJARRO F., NEGUERUELA I., RICHARDS A., RITCHIE B.W. and ANDREWS H.

Abstract (from CDS):

Massive stars play an important role in both cluster and galactic evolution and the rate at which they lose mass is a key driver of both their own evolution and their interaction with the environment up to and including their terminal SNe explosions. Young massive clusters provide an ideal opportunity to study a co-eval population of massive stars, where both their individual properties and the interaction with their environment can be studied in detail. We aim to study the constituent stars of the Galactic cluster Westerlund 1 in order to determine mass-loss rates for the diverse post-main sequence population of massive stars. To accomplish this we made 3mm continuum observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array. We detected emission from 50 stars in Westerlund 1, comprising all 21 Wolf-Rayets within the field of view, plus eight cool and 21 OB super-/hypergiants. Emission nebulae were associated with a number of the cool hypergiants while, unexpectedly, a number of hot stars also appear spatially resolved. We were able to measure the mass-loss rates for a unique population of massive post-main sequence stars at every stage of evolution, confirming a significant increase as stars transitioned from OB supergiant to WR states via LBV and/or cool hypergiant phases. Fortuitously, the range of spectral types exhibited by the OB supergiants provides a critical test of radiatively-driven wind theory and in particular the reality of the bi-stability jump. The extreme mass-loss rate inferred for the interacting binary Wd1-9 in comparison to other cluster members confirmed the key role binarity plays in massive stellar evolution. The presence of compact nebulae around a number of OB and WR stars is unexpected; by analogy to the cool super-/hypergiants we attribute this to confinement and sculpting of the stellar wind via interaction with the intra-cluster medium/wind. Given the morphologies of core collapse SNe depend on the nature of the pre-explosion circumstellar environment, if this hypothesis is correct then the properties of the explosion depend not just on the progenitor, but also the environment in which it is located.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2018

Journal keyword(s): stars: evolution - open clusters and associations: individual: Westerlund 1 - submillimeter: stars

Nomenclature: Tables 3+A.1: FCP18 NNNA N=101+12 among (Nos 1-101).

Status at CDS : Objects in title, abstract, text, figures, and all or part of small table(s) being processed in SIMBAD. // Acronym for new objects described in the dictionary of nomenclature and being created in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 129

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Number of rows : 129

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 V* S Per s*r 02 22 51.7103845023 +58 35 11.454759954 13.22 10.55 7.90     M4.5-7Iae 359 0
2 SN 1987A SN* 05 35 28.020 -69 16 11.07           SNIIpec 4548 2
3 * alf Ori s*r 05 55 10.30536 +07 24 25.4304 4.38 2.27 0.42 -1.17 -2.45 M1-M2Ia-Iab 1503 0
4 V* VY CMa s*r 07 22 58.32877 -25 46 03.2355 12.01 10.19 7.95     M5Iae 1018 0
5 HD 93131 WR* 10 43 52.2575981063 -60 07 04.016913264 5.52 6.43 6.48 7.46   WN6ha-w 280 0
6 HD 93162 WR* 10 44 10.3888220947 -59 43 11.105959983 7.90 8.55 8.80 8.66   O2.5If*/WN6+OB 341 1
7 SN 2013cu SN* 14 33 58.97 +40 14 20.7           SNII: 62 1
8 3FGL J1617.4-5846 AGN 16 17 17.8913859288 -58 48 07.860059063   18.23       ~ 93 1
9 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 56a * 16 46.9 -45 51           ~ 4 0
10 WR 77a WR* 16 46 55.4 -45 51 34     20.3     WN 6 0
11 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 86 * 16 46 57.1592223945 -45 50 09.942344569   22.9 18.76 16.43 14.00 O9.5Ib 6 0
12 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 55 * 16 46 58.4202565824 -45 51 31.291602492   21.6 18.030 15.283 12.758 O9.5B0.5Ia 12 0
13 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 56b * 16 46 58.8 -45 51 45   22.8 18.88 16.36 13.76 O9.5Ib 7 0
14 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 56 * 16 46 58.9482521025 -45 51 48.898534231   21.7 17.46     O9.5B0.5Ia 6 0
15 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 84 * 16 46 59.03 -45 50 28.2   21.3 17.82 15.60 13.63 O9.5Ib 7 0
16 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 1 * 16 46 59.4000616512 -45 50 46.717334625   21.9 18.37 16.09 13.65 ~ 5 0
17 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 2 * 16 46 59.72 -45 50 51.3   20.4 16.978 14.287 11.771 O9.5B0.5Ia 13 0
18 WR 77c WR* 16 47 00.8819171237 -45 51 20.512015820     19 17.336 14.340 WN8o 11 0
19 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 21 V* 16 47 01.13 -45 51 13.4   22.5 18.41 15.619 12.861 B0.5Ia 8 0
20 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 57a * 16 47 01.3597701479 -45 51 45.799486574   20.7 16.877 13.83 11.13 B4Ia 11 0
21 Cl* Westerlund 1 BKS H * 16 47 01.4273629136 -45 50 37.260634424   18.781 14.47     F3Ia+ 24 0
22 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 232 s*b 16 47 01.4381680892 -45 52 35.095830848   21.3 17.53 14.98 12.45 B0Iab 5 0
23 WR 77d WR* 16 47 01.5 -45 51 45           WN 8 0
24 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 78 V* 16 47 01.5495728784 -45 49 57.921299756     17.413 14.621 12.04 B1Ia 8 0
25 WR 77e WR* 16 47 01.668 -45 51 20.40     19     WN 10 0
26 [B2007] J164701.69-455257.8 V* 16 47 01.6818173410 -45 52 58.068922232       15.393 12.966 O9.5Ib 6 0
27 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 52 * 16 47 01.8447542252 -45 51 29.440031536   21.8 17.876 14.745 12.065 B1.5Ia 8 0
28 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 49 * 16 47 01.9032261354 -45 50 31.657908629   22.6 18.76 16.392 13.638 B0Iab 9 0
29 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 24 * 16 47 02.1549780316 -45 51 12.574291870   23.0 18.71 15.96 13.24 O9.2Ia 14 0
30 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 12 * 16 47 02.23 -45 50 59.1   22.0 17.575 13.611   F1Ia+ 21 0
31 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 11 * 16 47 02.2393028215 -45 50 47.194497409   21.2 17.508 14.599 11.898 O9.5B0.5Ia 13 0
32 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 61a * 16 47 02.2999490685 -45 51 41.769006403   21.2 17.506 14.633 12.01 O9.5B0.5Ia 12 0
33 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 48 V* 16 47 02.4594130530 -45 51 24.951891528       16.818 13.966 ~ 3 0
34 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 62a * 16 47 02.5 -45 51 37           O9.2Iab 7 0
35 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 23 * 16 47 02.56 -45 51 08.8   22.1 18.316 14.986 12.081 O9.5B0.5Ia 13 0
36 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 61b * 16 47 02.5661124892 -45 51 41.865044969   22.7 18.59 16.00 13.31 O9.5Iab 13 0
37 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 41 * 16 47 02.70 -45 50 56.9   21.3 17.87 15.39 12.78 O9.2Ia 12 0
38 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 38 * 16 47 02.8 -45 50 46   23.2 19.10 16.47 13.81 O9Iab 7 0
39 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 6b * 16 47 02.93 -45 50 22.3   23.6 20.20 17.91 15.25 O9.5III 5 0
40 WR 77f WR* 16 47 02.96 -45 50 19.7   21.552 17.792 15.035 12.508 WN10-11h 25 0
41 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 54 * 16 47 03.06 -45 51 30.5           B0.5Iab 5 0
42 Cl* Westerlund 1 BKS B * 16 47 03.1074828977 -45 52 18.957165027   22.8 19.008 13.634   M3Ia 22 0
43 WR 77g WR* 16 47 03.15 -45 50 43.8     19     WN 11 0
44 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 42 * 16 47 03.25 -45 50 52.2         10.764 B9Ia+ 16 0
45 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 10 s*b 16 47 03.3403089792 -45 50 34.601286210   22.720 18.516 15.257   O9.5/B0.5Iae 14 0
46 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 63a * 16 47 03.39 -45 51 57.7   22.6 18.56 16.20 13.68 B0Iab 5 0
47 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 43b * 16 47 03.52 -45 50 56.5           B1Ia 5 0
48 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 43 * 16 47 03.56 -45 50 57.6   22.8 18.05 15.378 12.647 O9.5B0.5Ia 14 0
49 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 46b * 16 47 03.61 -45 51 20.0           O9.5Ib 5 0
50 Hen 3-1250 Em* 16 47 03.6265799796 -45 50 14.357624931   20.0 15.972     B5Ia+ 23 0
51 Cl* Westerlund 1 BKS F s*y 16 47 03.6836562279 -45 50 43.530430986     15.05     F5Ia+ 19 0
52 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 43c * 16 47 03.76 -45 50 58.3   20.4 18.35 16.18 13.66 O9Ib 6 0
53 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 31 s*b 16 47 03.7850215117 -45 50 40.370909455           B0I+OB 7 0
54 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 65 * 16 47 03.8 -45 51 46   22.9 18.73 16.27 13.68 O9Ib 7 0
55 Cl* Westerlund 1 CN V WR* 16 47 03.8075338672 -45 50 38.730155095           WN8o 7 0
56 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 46a s*b 16 47 03.93 -45 51 19.6   23.0 18.55 15.537 12.499 B1Ia 12 0
57 WR 77i WR* 16 47 03.9633607588 -45 51 37.683424360     19.79 16.906 13.949 WC9d 9 0
58 Cl Westerlund 1 OpC 16 47 04.00 -45 51 04.9           ~ 483 0
59 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 236 * 16 47 04.0 -45 51 04     17.76   14.57 ~ 2 0
60 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 6a * 16 47 04.00 -45 50 21.0   22.2 18.41 15.80 13.16 B0.5Iab 7 0
61 Cl* Westerlund 1 CN G WR* 16 47 04.03 -45 51 25.1   22.7 20.87 17.75 14.68 WN7o 15 0
62 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 30 ** 16 47 04.11 -45 50 39.0   22.4 18.45 15.80 13.20 O+O 17 0
63 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 33 * 16 47 04.1266525740 -45 50 48.475675980   20.090 15.61 12.803   B5Ia+ 20 0
64 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 60 * 16 47 04.1334135473 -45 51 52.256261673   22.8 18.50 16.041 13.384 O9.5B0.5Ia 14 0
65 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 9 WR* 16 47 04.1422943113 -45 50 31.307461802   21.8 17.47 14.47 11.74 Be 46 0
66 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 35 * 16 47 04.2013795259 -45 50 53.715343785   22.7 18.59 16.00 13.31 O9.5B0.5Ia 10 0
67 WR 77k WR* 16 47 04.2024907825 -45 51 07.245158203   22.6 18.86 15.61 12.52 WN7 22 0
68 Cl* Westerlund 1 CN H WR* 16 47 04.22 -45 51 20.2           WC9d 10 0
69 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 34 * 16 47 04.39 -45 50 47.2   22.1 18.15 15.40 12.69 ~ 6 0
70 Cl* Westerlund 1 CN C WR* 16 47 04.40 -45 51 03.8     19     WC9d 8 0
71 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 29 s*b 16 47 04.41 -45 50 39.8   22.6 18.66 16.02 13.38 O9.5/B0.5Ia 10 0
72 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 238 * 16 47 04.4262088378 -45 52 27.766019210   21.4 17.820 14.98 12.45 O9.5B0.5Ia 13 0
73 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 28 s*b 16 47 04.63 -45 50 38.4   20.9 17.146 14.303   B2Ia 12 0
74 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 20 s*r 16 47 04.6954939457 -45 51 23.957603850       15.660   M6I 18 0
75 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 8 * 16 47 04.81 -45 50 25.2   19.9 15.913     F8Ia+ 15 0
76 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 19 * 16 47 04.8656136905 -45 50 59.294757475   22.6 18.784 15.366 12.452 O9.5B0.5Ia 13 0
77 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 8b * 16 47 04.95 -45 50 26.7           B1.5Ia 7 0
78 WR 77n WR* 16 47 05.2111619515 -45 52 24.987049941   21.7 17.86 15.39 12.90 WC9d 24 0
79 WR 77o WR* 16 47 05.37 -45 51 04.7     20.99 17.50 14.37 WN7o 21 0
80 Cl* Westerlund 1 BKS AS * 16 47 05.4063692757 -45 50 36.608299661   22.1 16.79     M5-6Ia 29 0
81 2MASS J16470570-4550506 V* 16 47 05.71 -45 50 50.7   21.2 17.610 14.898 12.228 B0.5Ia 7 0
82 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 25 * 16 47 05.7848583644 -45 50 33.418949115   21.9 17.85 15.22 12.61 O9Iab 9 0
83 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 37 * 16 47 06.01 -45 50 47.4   22.8 19.11 16.40 13.65 O9Ib 5 0
84 WR 77q WR* 16 47 06.01 -45 50 23.4       17.652 15.223 WN5o 12 0
85 WR 77p WR* 16 47 06.0558179916 -45 52 08.310667517     18.379 15.675 12.940 WC9 18 0
86 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 17 * 16 47 06.2491553642 -45 50 49.290357352   22.7 18.87 16.19 13.56 O9Iab 13 0
87 WR 77r WR* 16 47 06.28 -45 51 26.4     19 18.935 15.600 WN7o 15 0
88 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 13 EB* 16 47 06.4536718776 -45 50 26.067083031   21.1 17.19 14.63 12.06 BIa+ 28 0
89 [CMN2008] J164706.5-455039 WR* 16 47 06.60 -45 50 38.6   23.7 19.81 16.98 13.99 WN6o 6 0
90 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 16 * 16 47 06.6152064188 -45 50 42.171179650   20.5 16.248     A5Ia+ 23 0
91 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 15 * 16 47 06.6298019596 -45 50 29.720379477   22.8 18.96 16.38 13.75 O9.2Ia 21 0
92 [DCN2010] D09-R2 * 16 47 06.867 -45 50 37.17           ~ 3 0
93 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 74 * 16 47 07.0789459358 -45 50 13.090797987       15.835 13.312 O9.2Ia 10 0
94 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 243 s*b 16 47 07.5028508821 -45 52 29.152464693   19.873 15.730     LBV 53 0
95 WR 77sb WR* 16 47 07.6628412189 -45 52 35.973599868       16.886 14.047 WN6o 11 0
96 WR 77s WR* 16 47 08.3531944202 -45 50 45.405753222     19.69 16.59 13.68 WN7b 23 0
97 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 71 * 16 47 08.4569033058 -45 50 49.327340354   21.5 17.531 14.158 11.16 B2.5Ia 17 0
98 Cl* Westerlund 1 BKS E * 16 47 08.9189383747 -45 49 58.452680562     16.70     M4Ia 18 0
99 [DCN2010] D09-R1 * 16 47 09.075 -45 51 10.23           ~ 3 0
100 Cl* Westerlund 1 W 70 * 16 47 09.3840936441 -45 50 49.680751506   21.2 16.88   11.352 B3Ia 13 0
101 PSR J1647-4552 Psr 16 47 10.18 -45 52 16.7           ~ 179 1
102 HD 152408 s*b 16 54 58.5049001684 -41 09 03.091715510 5.17 5.92 5.77 7.00   O8Iape 352 0
103 CD-38 11746 WR* 17 19 00.5230727136 -38 48 51.250086613 13.01 12.48 11.02 10.55   WN8h 89 0
104 WRAY 15-1676 pA* 17 19 49.3292317040 -39 10 37.929612963     13.1     ~ 42 1
105 HD 160529 sg* 17 41 59.0257256544 -33 30 13.702939546 8.17 7.87 6.66 5.50 4.51 A2Ia 187 1
106 GCIRS 7 * 17 45 39.987 -29 00 22.24           M2 348 0
107 NAME Sgr A* X 17 45 40.03599 -29 00 28.1699           ~ 3571 3
108 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11924 0
109 GCIRS 33E WR* 17 45 40.0941 -29 00 31.213           Ofpe/WN9 52 0
110 PSR J1745-2900 Psr 17 45 40.1640 -29 00 29.818           ~ 237 0
111 NAME Arches Cluster Cl* 17 45 50.5 -28 49 28           ~ 647 0
112 NAME Quintuplet Cluster OpC 17 46 13.9 -28 49 48           ~ 459 0
113 EM* AS 268 WR* 18 02 23.4579211710 -23 34 37.481060535   14.38 12.31 11.43   WN9h 97 0
114 V* VX Sgr s*r 18 08 04.0431479808 -22 13 26.629744195 11.72 9.41 6.52 3.90 2.11 M8.5Ia 554 0
115 PSR J1808-2024 Psr 18 08 39.32 -20 24 40.1           ~ 1129 2
116 HD 168607 s*b 18 21 14.8855350307 -16 22 31.760520819 10.23 9.82 8.28 8.55   B9Iaep 175 1
117 HD 168625 s*b 18 21 19.5486475779 -16 22 26.077308888 10.15 9.78 8.37 8.76   B6Iap 253 2
118 IRC -10414 s*r 18 23 17.9089752940 -13 42 47.110208529       11.15   M7I 73 0
119 IRAS 18357-0604 IR 18 38 23.4057310368 -06 01 26.770155662           ~ 9 0
120 GBS 1900+14 gB 19 07 13 +09 19.6           ~ 796 0
121 SS 433 HXB 19 11 49.5645897700 +04 58 57.824087535   16.3 13.0     A7Ib: 1953 3
122 IRC +10420 pA* 19 26 48.0981288433 +11 21 16.756524951   13.98 11.66     F8Ia+e 455 0
123 HD 193793 WR* 20 20 27.9763345925 +43 51 16.289775091 6.90 7.25 6.85 4.58   WC7p+O5 655 1
124 Schulte 12 s*b 20 32 40.9574572449 +41 14 29.276333992 16.1 14.45 11.702     B3-4Ia+ 367 0
125 EM* MWC 349 ** 20 32 45.499080 +40 39 36.74124   15.88 13.15 12.13   Bep 713 0
126 MR 112 WR* 20 35 47.0859278605 +41 22 44.703520146     12.64 12.16   WC5-6e+O8 145 1
127 NML Cyg s*r 20 46 25.5382179476 +40 06 59.396202678   18.64 16.60     M7/8 485 0
128 V* V509 Cas LP* 23 00 05.1007915562 +56 56 43.348681058 8.01 6.68 5.13 3.96 3.11 G4_0 314 0
129 SN 2013fs SN* 23 19 44.70 +10 11 05.0           SNIIP 63 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.01.17-16:47:08

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