2019A&A...630A.152H


Query : 2019A&A...630A.152H

2019A&A...630A.152H - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 630A, 152-152 (2019/10-1)

Thermal evolution of rocky exoplanets with a graphite outer shell.

HAKIM K., VAN DEN BERG A., VAZAN A., HONING D., VAN WESTRENEN W. and DOMINIK C.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. The presence of rocky exoplanets with a large refractory carbon inventory is predicted by chemical evolution models of protoplanetary disks of stars with photospheric C/O>0.65, and by models studying the radial transport of refractory carbon. High-pressure high-temperature laboratory experiments show that most of the carbon in these exoplanets differentiates into a graphite outer shell.
Aims. Our aim is to evaluate the effects of a graphite outer shell on the thermal evolution of rocky exoplanets containing a metallic core and a silicate mantle.
Methods. We implemented a parameterized model of mantle convection to determine the thermal evolution of rocky exoplanets with graphite layer thicknesses up to 1000 km.
Results. We find that because of the high thermal conductivity of graphite, conduction is the dominant heat transport mechanism in a graphite layer for long-term evolution (>200Myr). The conductive graphite shell essentially behaves like a stagnant lid with a fixed thickness. Models of Kepler-37b (Mercury-size) and a Mars-sized exoplanet show that a planet with a graphite lid cools faster than a planet with a silicate lid, and a planet without a stagnant lid cools the fastest. A graphite lid needs to be approximately ten times thicker than a corresponding silicate lid to produce similar thermal evolution.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2019

Journal keyword(s): planets and satellites: terrestrial planets - planets and satellites: interiors - planets and satellites: physical evolution - planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: surfaces - methods: numerical

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 BD+44 3020b Pl 18 56 14.3076037320 +44 31 05.389610412           ~ 65 1

Query : 2019A&A...630A.152H

Basic data :
BD+44 3020b -- Extra-solar Planet
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
Pl (2020AJ,Kepler), Pl? (2015ApJS,KOI), * (BD)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
18 56 14.3076037320 +44 31 05.389610412 (Optical) [ 0.0088 0.0107 90 ] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
18 54 44.5094809718 +44 27 02.650763077 [ 0.0088 0.0107 90 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
074.4371623159920 +17.8433181639840 [ 0.0088 0.0107 90 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
-60.396 48.657 [0.011 0.013 90] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
Syntax of parallax is : 'value quality [error] bibcode'
  • value : parallax value
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • [error] : mean error
  • bibcode : bibcode of the parallax reference
Parallaxes (mas):
15.6253 [0.0105] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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Hierarchy : number of linked objects
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BD+44 3020b Kepler-37b KOI-245.03

References (65 between 1850 and 2024) (Total 65)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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diameter : 2   

   


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BD+44 3020b

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