2020A&A...640A..21B


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.10.26CET13:41:41

2020A&A...640A..21B - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 640A, 21-21 (2020/8-1)

Pebbles versus planetesimals. The outcomes of population synthesis models.

BRUGGER N., BURN R., COLEMAN G.A.L., ALIBERT Y. and BENZ W.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. In the core accretion scenario of giant planet formation, a massive core forms first and then accretes a gaseous envelope. In the discussion of how this core forms, some divergences appear. The first scenarios of planet formation predict the accretion of kilometre-sized bodies called planetesimals, while more recent works suggest growth by the accretion of pebbles, which are centimetre-sized objects.
Aims. These two accretion models are often discussed separately and our aim here is to compare the outcomes of the two models with identical initial conditions.
Methods. The comparison is done using two distinct codes, one that computes the planetesimal accretion and the other the pebble accretion. All the other components of the simulated planet growth are computed identically in the two models: the disc, the accretion of gas, and the migration. Using a population synthesis approach, we compare planet simulations and study the impact of the two solid accretion models, focusing on the formation of single planets.
Results. We find that the outcomes of the populations are strongly influenced by the accretion model. The planetesimal model predicts the formation of more giant planets, while the pebble accretion model forms more super-Earth-mass planets. This is due to the pebble isolation mass (Miso) concept, which prevents planets formed by pebble accretion to accrete gas efficiently before reaching Miso. This translates into a population of planets that are not heavy enough to accrete a consequent envelope, but that are in a mass range where type I migration is very efficient. We also find higher gas mass fractions for a given core mass for the pebble model compared to the planetesimal model, caused by luminosity differences. This also implies planets with lower densities, which could be confirmed observationally.
Conclusions. We conclude that the two models produce different outputs. Focusing on giant planets, the sensitivity of their formation differs: for the pebble accretion model, the time at which the embryos are formed and the period over which solids are accreted strongly impact the results, while the population of giant planets formed by planetesimal accretion depends on the planetesimal size and on the splitting in the amount of solids available to form planetesimals.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2020

Journal keyword(s): planet-disk interactions - planets and satellites: formation - planets and satellites: physical evolution - planets and satellites: gaseous planets - planets and satellites: terrestrial planets

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 TRAPPIST-1 LM* 23 06 29.3684052886 -05 02 29.031690445     18.798 16.466 14.024 M7.5e 534 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.10.26CET13:41:41

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Basic data :
TRAPPIST-1 -- Low-mass star (M<1solMass)
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

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* (Ref,EPIC,...), IR (2MASS,2MASSI,...), LM* (Ref), PM* (Ref)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
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    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
23 06 29.3684052886 -05 02 29.031690445 (Optical) [ 0.1090 0.0928 90 ] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
23 03 51.0499480853 -05 18 18.806803290 [ 0.1090 0.0928 90 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
069.7127715364695 -56.6446039553541 [ 0.1090 0.0928 90 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
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Proper motions mas/yr :
930.879 -479.403 [0.247 0.174 90] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
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  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) -54 [2] / z(spectroscopic) -0.000180 [0.000007] / cz -54.00 [2.00]
   (Opt) B 2015ApJS..220...18B
Syntax of parallax is : 'value quality [error] bibcode'
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Parallaxes (mas):
80.4512 [0.1211] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Spectral type is made of 3 parts: %coding is composed of 4 parts :
  • the spectral type, which is made of a temperature class, eventually a luminosity class (roman number) and/or spectral peculiarities;
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  • bibcode : bibcode of the spectral type reference
Spectral type:
M7.5e D 2000AJ....120.1085G
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  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
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  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (7) :
V 18.798 [0.082] C 2006AJ....132.1234C
R 16.466 [0.065] C 2006AJ....132.1234C
G 15.6451 [0.0014] C 2018yCat.1345....0G
I 14.024 [0.115] C 2006AJ....132.1234C
J 11.354 [0.022] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
H 10.718 [0.021] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
K 10.296 [0.023] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
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EPIC 246199087 Karmn J23064-050 2MASSW J2306292-050227 WISEA J230630.02-050234.1
EPIC 200164267 2MASS J23062928-0502285 2MUCD 12171 Gaia DR2 2635476908753563008
K2-112 2MASSI J2306292-050227 TRAPPIST-1

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References (534 between 1850 and 2020) (Total 534)
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2MASS J23062928-0502285 2MASSI J2306292-050227 WISEA J230630.02-050234.1 Gaia DR2 2635476908753563008

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2020.10.26-13:41:41

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