2020A&A...640A..62A


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.10.26CET13:40:42

2020A&A...640A..62A - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 640A, 62-62 (2020/8-1)

Studies of stationary features in jets: BL Lacertae. I. The dynamics and brightness asymmetry on sub-parsec scales.

ARSHAKIAN T.G., PUSHKAREV A.B., LISTER M.L. and SAVOLAINEN T.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. Monitoring of BL Lacertae at 15GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) has revealed a quasi-stationary radio feature in the innermost part of the jet, at 0.26 mas from the radio core. Stationary features are found in many blazars, but they have rarely been explored in detail.
Aims. We aim to study the kinematics, dynamics, and brightness of the quasi-stationary feature of the jet in BL Lacertae based on VLBA monitoring with submilliarcsecond resolution (subparsec-scales) over 17 years.
Methods. We analysed position uncertainties and flux leakage effects of the innermost quasi-stationary feature and developed statistical tools to distinguish the motions of the stationary feature and the radio core. We constructed a toy model to simulate the observed emission of the quasi-stationary component.
Results. We find that trajectories of the quasi-stationary component are aligned along the jet axis, which can be interpreted as evidence of the displacements of the radio core. The intrinsic motions of the core and quasi-stationary component have a commensurate contribution to the apparent motion of the stationary component. During the jet-stable state, the core shift significantly influences the apparent displacements of the stationary component, which shows orbiting motion with reversals. The quasi-stationary component has low superluminal speeds on time scales of months. On time-scales of few years, the apparent mean speeds are subrelativistic, of about 0.15 the speed of light. We find that the brightness profile of the quasi-stationary component is asymmetric along and transverse to the jet axis, and this effect remains unchanged regardless of epoch.
Conclusions. Accurate positional determination, a high cadence of observations, and a proper accounting for the core shift are crucial for the measurement of the trajectories and speeds of the quasi-stationary component. Its motion is similar to the behaviour of the jet nozzle, which drags the outflow in a swinging motion and excites transverse waves of different amplitudes travelling downstream. A simple modelling of the brightness distribution shows that the configuration of twisted velocity field formed at the nozzle of the jet in combination with small jet viewing angle can account for the observed brightness asymmetry.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2020

Journal keyword(s): BL Lacertae objects: individual: BL Lacertae

CDS comments: C7 not in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME BL Lac BLL 22 02 43.2913773726 +42 16 39.978417860   15.66 14.72     ~ 2021 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.10.26CET13:40:42

Available data : Basic data  •  Identifiers  •  Plot & images  •  Bibliography  •  Measurements  •  External archives  •  Notes  •  Annotations


Basic data :
NAME BL Lac -- BL Lac - type object
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
Rad (Ref,B3,...), gam (3EG,EGR,...), X (Ref,1AXG,...), BLL (Ref,2011NewA...16..503M,...), Bla (Ref,2013ApJS..207...19B,...), * (PLX,UCAC2,...), QSO (Ref,2016A&A...595A...5M,...), IR (AKARI,IRAS,...), V* (AN,V*,...), smm (JCMTSE,JCMTSF), AGN (Ref)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
22 02 43.2913773726 +42 16 39.978417860 (Optical) [ 0.0117 0.0142 90 ] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
22 00 39.3709951479 +42 02 08.470689419 [ 0.0117 0.0142 90 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
092.5895761447097 -10.4411592838919 [ 0.0117 0.0142 90 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
-0.006 0.083 [0.025 0.028 90] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) 19974 [~] / z(spectroscopic) 0.069 [~] / cz 20686 [~]
   D 2011NewA...16..503M
Syntax of parallax is : 'value quality [error] bibcode'
  • value : parallax value
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • [error] : mean error
  • bibcode : bibcode of the parallax reference
Parallaxes (mas):
1.9 [3.5] E 1995GCTP..C......0V
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
0.0000105 0.0000057 17 (Rad) D 2010AJ....139.1713C
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (6) :
B 15.66 [~] D 2010A&A...518A..10V
V 14.72 [~] D 2010A&A...518A..10V
G 13.8439 [0.0169] C 2018yCat.1345....0G
J 12.201 [0.029] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
H 11.295 [0.037] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
K 10.485 [0.022] C 2003yCat.2246....0C
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The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).
Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations.
notes:


The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (94) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

QSO B2200+420 1FLE J2203+4214 RGB J2202+422 2XMMi J220243.3+421639
AKARI-IRC-V1 J2202433+421640 GB6 J2202+4216 RGB J2202.7+4216 XSS J22023+4226
AN 363.1929 GB6 B2200+4202 RORF 2200+420 [BDW2002] q2200+4202
1AXG J220245+4217 87GB 220040.2+420203 RX J2202.7+4216 [CAB95] IRAS F22006+4202
B3 2200+420 ICRF J220243.2+421639 1RXS J220244.4+421626 [CGL99] 23
BWE 2200+4202 IERS B2200+420 S4 2200+42 [DGT2001] B2200+420
CJ1 2200+420 INTREF 1067 S4 2200+420 [HB93] 2200+420
CJF B2200+420 IRAS F22006+4202 SWIFT J2202.8+4218 [IN88] 2200+420
CLASS J220243.2912+421639.975 JCMTSE J220243.3+421637 SWIFT J2202.8+4216 [KRL2007b] 392
DA 571 JCMTSF J220243.3+421637 TeV J2202+422 [LC2007] 80
2E 2200.6+4202 JVAS J2202+422 TIC 353622691 [MGL2009] BZB J2202+4216
2E 4558 JVAS B2200+420 TXS 2200+420 [MML2015] 5BZB J2202+4216
3EG J2202+4217 1Jy 2200+420 UCAC2 46472356 [VV2000b] J220243.3+421639
3EG J2202+4225 1Jy 2200+42 USNO 770 [VV2003b] J220243.3+421639
EGR J2204+4225 2MASS J22024329+4216400 V* BL Lac [VV2006b] J220243.3+421639
1ES 2200+42.0 MITG J220245+4216 VLSS J2202.7+4216 [VV2010b] J220243.3+421639
0FGL J2202.4+4217 NAME BL Lac VRO 42.22.01 [VV98b] J220243.3+421639
1FGL J2202.8+4216 NEWPS5 J2202+4216 VSOP J2202+4216 [W72] 2200+42
2FGL J2202.8+4216 NVSS J220243+421640 WB 2200+4202 [WCO2009] J220247+421737
3FGL J2202.7+4217 OHIO Y 401 WISE J220243.29+421640.0 AAVSO 2158+41
4FGL J2202.7+4216 PBC J2202.7+4217 WISE J220243.29+421639.9 Gaia DR1 1960066221690852224
1FHL J2202.7+4216 PKS 2200+420 WMAP 58 Gaia DR2 1960066225988786048
2FHL J2202.7+4216 PLX 5322.02 WMAP J2202+4217
3FHL J2202.7+4216 QSO J2202+4216 WN B2200.6+4202

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References (2021 between 1850 and 2020) (Total 2021)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Collections of Measurements


velocities : 7    PM : 2    PLX : 1   

   

Observing logs


ISO : 11    herschel : 94    IUE : 11   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : NAME BL Lac

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

AKARI-IRC-V1 J2202433+421640 BWE 2200+4202 2E 4558 3EG J2202+4217 3EG J2202+4225
IERS B2200+420 IRAS F22006+4202 2MASS J22024329+4216400 MITG J220245+4216 NVSS J220243+421640
PKS 2200+420 1RXS J220244.4+421626 UCAC2 46472356 V* BL Lac VSOP J2202+4216
WISE J220243.29+421640.0 WISE J220243.29+421639.9 WN B2200.6+4202 Gaia DR1 1960066221690852224 Gaia DR2 1960066225988786048

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2020.10.26-13:40:42

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