2021A&A...647A.175O


Query : 2021A&A...647A.175O

2021A&A...647A.175O - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 647A, 175-175 (2021/3-1)

How planets grow by pebble accretion. III. Emergence of an interior composition gradient.

ORMEL C.W., VAZAN A. and BROUWERS M.G.

Abstract (from CDS):

During their formation, planets form large, hot atmospheres due to the ongoing accretion of solids. It has been customary to assume that all solids end up at the center, constituting a "core" of refractory materials, whereas the envelope remains metal-free. However, recent work, as well as observations by the Juno mission, indicate that the distinction may not be so clear cut. Indeed, small silicate, pebble-sized particles will sublimate in the atmosphere when they hit the sublimation temperature (T∼2000K). In this paper we extend previous analytical work to compute the properties of planets within such a pebble accretion scenario. We conduct 1D numerical calculations of the atmosphere of an accreting planet, solving the stellar structure equations, augmented by a nonideal equation of state that describes a hydrogen and helium-silicate vapor mixture. Calculations terminate at the point where the total mass in metal is equal to that of the H+He gas, which we numerically confirm as the onset of runaway gas accretion. When pebbles sublimate before reaching the core, insufficient (accretion) energy is available to mix dense, vapor-rich lower layers with the higher layers of lower metallicity. A gradual structure in which Z decreases with radius is therefore a natural outcome of planet formation by pebble accretion. We highlight, furthermore, that (small) pebbles can act as the dominant source of opacity, preventing rapid cooling and presenting a channel for (mini-)Neptunes to survive in gas-rich disks. Nevertheless, once pebble accretion subsides, the atmosphere rapidly clears followed by runaway gas accretion. We consider atmospheric recycling to be the most probable mechanism to have stalled the growth of the envelopes of these planets.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2021

Journal keyword(s): planets and satellites: formation - planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: physical evolution - planet-disk interactions - methods: numerical

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 Kepler-36c Pl 19 25 00.0428079600 +49 13 54.630900876           ~ 121 1

Query : 2021A&A...647A.175O

Basic data :
Kepler-36c -- Extra-solar Planet
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
Pl (2020AJ,Kepler), Pl? (2015ApJS,KOI)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
19 25 00.0428079600 +49 13 54.630900876 (Optical) [ 0.0076 0.0091 90 ] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
19 23 38.4259324768 +49 07 54.590929351 [ 0.0076 0.0091 90 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
080.9328073942531 +15.1020130125089 [ 0.0076 0.0091 90 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
1.151 -8.064 [0.011 0.011 90] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
Syntax of parallax is : 'value quality [error] bibcode'
  • value : parallax value
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • [error] : mean error
  • bibcode : bibcode of the parallax reference
Parallaxes (mas):
1.8528 [0.0087] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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Hierarchy : number of linked objects
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Kepler-36c KOI-277.01

References (121 between 1850 and 2024) (Total 121)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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diameter : 1   

   


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