2021A&A...648A..45P


Query : 2021A&A...648A..45P

2021A&A...648A..45P - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 648A, 45-45 (2021/4-1)

The CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI survey of jets from Class 0 protostars. Exploring whether jets are ubiquitous in young stars.

PODIO L., TABONE B., CODELLA C., GUETH F., MAURY A., CABRIT S., LEFLOCH B., MARET S., BELLOCHE A., ANDRE P., ANDERL S., GAUDEL M. and TESTI L.

Abstract (from CDS):


Aims. As a part of the CALYPSO Large Program, we aim to constrain the properties of protostellar jets and outflows by searching for corresponding emission in a sample of 21 Class 0 protostars covering a broad range of internal luminosities (Lint from 0.035L to 47L).
Methods. We analyzed high angular (∼0.5"-1.0") resolution IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) observations in three typical outflow and jet tracers, namely: CO (2-1), SO (56-45), and SiO (5-4). We obtained the detection rate, spatial distribution, kinematics, and collimation of the outflow and jet emission in the three lines. Molecular column densities and abundances, the jet mass-loss and momentum rates, and mechanical luminosity are estimated from the integrated line intensities.
Results. Blue- and red-shifted emission in CO (2-1), which probes outflowing gas, was detected in all the sources in the sample and detected for the first time in the cases of SerpS-MM22 and SerpS-MM18b. Collimated high-velocity jets in SiO (5-4) were detected in 67% of the sources (for the first time in IRAS4B2, IRAS4B1, L1448-NB, SerpS-MM18a) and 77% of these also showed jet or outflow emission in SO (56-45). The detection rate of jets in SiO and SO increases with internal luminosity. In five sources (that is, 24% of the sample) SO (56-45) is elongated and reveals a velocity gradient perpendicular to the jet direction, hence, it probes the inner envelope or the disk, or both. The detected SiO jets are collimated (typical opening angle, α∼10°) and surrounded by wider angle SO (α∼15°) and CO (α∼25°) emission. The abundance of SO relative to H2 ranges from <10–7 up to 10–6; whereas for SiO, the lower limits were found to range from >2.4x10–7 to >5x10–6, with the exception of the jets from IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2, which show low SiO abundance (≤2-6x10–8). The mass-loss rates range from ∼7x10–8M/yr up to ∼3x10–6M/yr for Lint∼1-50L.
Conclusions. The CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI survey shows that the outflow phenomenon is ubiquitous in our sample of protostars and that the detection rate of high-velocity collimated jets increases for increasing protostellar accretion, with at least 80% of the sources with Lint>1L driving a jet. The detected protostellar flows exhibit an onion-like structure, where the SiO jet is nested into a wider angle SO and CO outflow. On scales >300au the SiO jets are less collimated (4°-12°) than atomic jets from Class II sources (∼3°), possibly dueto projection effects and contamination by SiO emission from the bow-shocks. On the other hand, velocity asymmetry between the two jet lobes are detected in one third of the sources, similarly to Class II atomic jets, suggesting that the same launching mechanism is at work. Most of the jets are SiO rich, which indicates very efficient release of>1-10% of elemental silicon in gas phase likely in dust-free winds, launched from inside the dust sublimation radius. The estimated mass-loss rates are larger by up to five orders of magnitude than what was measured for Class II jets, indicating that the ejection decreases as the source evolves and accretion fades. Similarly to Class II sources, the mass-loss rates are ∼1-50% of the mass accretion rate, Macc, suggesting that the correlation between mass ejection and mass accretion holds along the star-formation process from 104yr up to a few Myr.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2021

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: protostars - ISM: jets and outflows - ISM: molecules - ISM: abundances

Simbad objects: 65

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Number of rows : 65
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 ACO 426 ClG 03 19 47.2 +41 30 47           ~ 2149 1
2 3C 84 Sy2 03 19 48.1599902040 +41 30 42.108850836   13.10 12.48 11.09   ~ 3859 3
3 LDN 1448 DNe 03 22.5 +30 35           ~ 502 0
4 [TLL2016] Per-emb-22-B Rad 03 25 22.3520 +30 45 13.151           ~ 7 0
5 [TLL2016] Per-emb-22-A Rad 03 25 22.4100 +30 45 13.254           ~ 9 0
6 LDN 1448NW Y*O 03 25 35.66 +30 45 34.2           ~ 68 0
7 JCMTSE J032536.1+304514 Y*O 03 25 36.22 +30 45 15.7           ~ 117 0
8 [TTK2018] Per-emb-33-B cm 03 25 36.3210 +30 45 14.913           ~ 6 0
9 [TTK2018] Per-emb-33-C cm 03 25 36.3800 +30 45 14.722           ~ 8 0
10 LDN 1448NA smm 03 25 36.49 +30 45 22.2           ~ 180 1
11 SSTc2d J032536.4+304522 Y*O 03 25 36.49 +30 45 22.2           ~ 193 1
12 IRAS F03226+3033 Y*O 03 25 38.83 +30 44 06.2           ~ 325 0
13 SSTc2d J032539.1+304358 Y*? 03 25 39.12 +30 43 58.2           ~ 43 1
14 [JCC87] IRAS 2A Y*O 03 28 55.55 +31 14 36.7           ~ 439 3
15 [TDL2015] IRAS2A VLA2 Rad 03 28 55.563 +31 14 36.41           ~ 8 0
16 [CAZ2013] NGC 1333 IRAS 2A1 smm 03 28 55.57 +31 14 37.1           ~ 9 0
17 NAME HH 7-11 MMS 3 smm 03 29 01.964 +31 15 38.04           ~ 59 0
18 NAME HH 7-11 MMS 2 smm 03 29 03.056 +31 15 51.67           ~ 79 0
19 [RAC97] VLA 3 smm 03 29 03.372 +31 16 01.60           ~ 37 0
20 [RAC97] VLA 4a Rad 03 29 03.715 +31 16 04.14           ~ 25 0
21 [HSW2018] NGC 1333-17 smm 03 29 03.73 +31 16 03.8           ~ 82 0
22 [RAC97] VLA 4b Rad 03 29 03.740 +31 16 04.15           ~ 27 0
23 V* V512 Per Or* 03 29 03.7578170808 +31 16 03.947525688           ~ 371 0
24 NAME HH 7-11 FIR 03 29 03.9 +31 16 06           ~ 346 0
25 [JCC87] IRAS 4A2 Y*O 03 29 10.413 +31 13 32.20           ~ 110 1
26 [JCC87] IRAS 4A Y*O 03 29 10.49 +31 13 30.8           ~ 684 1
27 [JCC87] IRAS 4A1 Y*O 03 29 10.510 +31 13 31.01           ~ 99 1
28 [JCC87] IRAS 4 FIR 03 29 10.9 +31 13 26           ~ 477 0
29 NGC 1333 OpC 03 29 11 +31 18.6           ~ 1373 1
30 [JCC87] IRAS 4B Y*O 03 29 12.058 +31 13 02.05           ~ 588 0
31 NAME IRAS 4B1 North Y*O 03 29 12.06 +31 13 05.4           ~ 13 0
32 [JCC87] IRAS 4B2 smm 03 29 12.8 +31 13 02           ~ 16 0
33 [JCC87] IRAS 4C Y*O 03 29 13.54 +31 13 58.2           ~ 99 1
34 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1267 0
35 HH 211 Y*O 03 43 56.52 +32 00 52.8           ~ 344 0
36 NAME IRAM 04191 MMS err 04 21 56.37 +15 29 48.9           ~ 4 0
37 IRAS 04191+1523 Y*O 04 22 00.43944 +15 30 21.2148           ~ 195 0
38 WISE J042838.78+265134.6 Y*O 04 28 38.78544 +26 51 34.6824           ~ 48 0
39 LDN 1521F DNe 04 28 39.3 +26 51 43           ~ 195 1
40 LDN 1527 DNe 04 39 53 +25 45.0           ~ 584 0
41 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 4099 0
42 HH 212 HH 05 43 51.41 -01 02 53.1           ~ 358 1
43 3C 273 BLL 12 29 06.6998257176 +02 03 08.597629980   13.05 14.830 14.11   ~ 5638 1
44 SH 2-68 N Y*O 18 29 48.09 +01 16 45.0           ~ 130 1
45 [WM2000] S68Nc PoC 18 29 48.710 +01 16 57.00           ~ 7 0
46 NAME Serpens Cloud SFR 18 29 49 +01 14.8           ~ 1049 2
47 2MASS J18294960+0117058 Y*O 18 29 49.602 +01 17 05.83           ~ 30 0
48 [AHA2018] Serpens SMM4B Y*O 18 29 56.50 +01 13 11.0           ~ 7 0
49 [AHA2018] Serpens SMM4A Y*O 18 29 56.70 +01 13 15.0           ~ 11 0
50 NAME Serpens SMM 4 cor 18 29 57.1 +01 13 15           ~ 134 0
51 NAME Serpens South molecular cloud MoC 18 30 -02.0           ~ 78 0
52 SSTYSV J183003.48-020308.5 Y*O 18 30 03.488712 -02 03 08.57862           ~ 6 0
53 [KKT2016] VLA 12 Y*? 18 30 04.10 -02 03 02.5           ~ 15 0
54 [MAM2011] SerpS-MM18 Y*O 18 30 04.13 -02 03 02.1           ~ 15 0
55 [MAM2011] SerpS-MM22 Y*O 18 30 12.28 -02 06 53.0           ~ 10 0
56 NAME Aql Rift DNe 18 32 -01.0           ~ 297 1
57 LDN 663 DNe 19 36 55 +07 34.4           ~ 612 0
58 EM* MWC 349 ** 20 32 45.499080 +40 39 36.74124   15.88 13.15 12.13   Bep 772 0
59 NAME LDN 1157-mm Y*O 20 39 06.2 +68 02 15           ~ 179 0
60 LDN 1157 DNe 20 39 06.4 +68 02 13           ~ 549 0
61 LDN 1082 DNe 20 51.1 +60 11           ~ 35 0
62 NAME GF 9-2 * 20 51 30.1 +60 18 39           ~ 25 1
63 3C 454.3 Bla 22 53 57.7480438728 +16 08 53.561508864   16.57 16.10 15.22   ~ 2730 2
64 NAME Cepheus Flare MoC 23 34 +72.0           ~ 124 0
65 NAME Gould Belt PoG ~ ~           ~ 832 1

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2023.02.04-09:12:59

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