2021A&A...649A.148S


Query : 2021A&A...649A.148S

2021A&A...649A.148S - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 649A, 148-148 (2021/5-1)

Influence of the nano-grain depletion in photon-dominated regions. Application to the gas physics and chemistry in the Horsehead.

SCHIRMER T., HABART E., YSARD N., BRON E., LE BOURLOT J., VERSTRAETE L., ABERGEL A., JONES A.P., ROUEFF E. and LE PETIT F.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. The large disparity in physical conditions from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) to denser clouds such as photon-dominated regions (PDRs) triggers an evolution of the dust properties (i.e. composition, size, and shape). The gas physics and chemistry are tightly connected to these dust properties and are therefore affected by dust evolution and especially the nano-grain depletion in the outer irradiated part of PDRs.
Aims. We highlight the influence of nano-grain depletion on the gas physics and chemistry in the Horsehead nebula, a prototypical PDR.
Methods. We used a model for atomic and molecular gas in PDRs, the Meudon PDR code, using diffuse ISM-like dust and Horsehead-like dust to study the influence of nano-grain depletion on the gas physics and chemistry, focusing on the impact on photoelectric heating and H2 formation and, therefore, on the H2 gas lines.
Results. We find that nano-grain depletion in the Horsehead strongly affects gas heating through the photoelectric effect and thus the gas temperature and the H2 formation, hence the H-H2 position. Consequently, the first four pure rotational lines of H2 (e.g. 0-0 S(0), S(1), S(2), and S(3)) vary by a factor of 2 to 14. The 0-0 S(3) line that is often underestimated in models is underestimated even more when taking nano-grain depletion into account due to the decrease in gas heating through the photoelectric effect. This strongly suggests that our understanding of the excitation of H2 and/or of heating processes in the Horsehead, and more generally in PDRs, is still incomplete.
Conclusions. Nano-grain depletion in the outer part of the Horsehead has a strong influence on several gas tracers that will be prominent in JWST observations of irradiated clouds. We therefore need to take this depletion into account in order to improve our understanding of the Horsehead, and more generally PDRs, and to contribute to the optimal scientific return of the mission.

Abstract Copyright: © T. Schirmer et al. 2021

Journal keyword(s): photon-dominated region (PDR) - planetary nebulae: individual: Horsehead - dust, extinction - evolution - ISM: lines and bands

Simbad objects: 1

goto Full paper

goto View the references in ADS

Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NAME Horsehead Nebula DNe 05 40 59.0 -02 27 30           ~ 480 0

Query : 2021A&A...649A.148S

Basic data :
NAME Horsehead Nebula -- Dark Cloud (nebula)
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
DNe (Barnard,[DB2002b]), MoC (M3T), Cld ([OS98])
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
05 40 59.0 -02 27 30 [ ] D ~
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
05 38 28.1 -02 28 59 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
206.9561 -16.7752 [ ]
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
6 4 90 (~) D 2002A&A...383..631D
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
Back
All CDSPortal (CDSPortal)

Send to sendBySAMP sendBySAMP

sedIcon
within arcsec The VizieR photometry tool allows for easy visualization of photometry points extracted around the Simbad position from photometry-enabled catalogues in VizieR.
The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).
sed-help-icon

The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (5) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

NAME Horsehead Nebula M3T 31 [OS98] 52
Barnard 33 [DB2002b] G206.95-16.80

References (480 between 1850 and 2022) (Total 480)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
Follow new references on this object
                Reference summaries :

                from: to:

                 or select by : (not exhaustive, explanation here)


Observing logs


herschel : 38   

   


External archives :

Search by coordinates in Vizier (radius: 30 arcsec)


Annotations :
Annotations allow a user to add a note or report an error concerning the astronomical object and its data. It requires registration to post a note. See description .
Please, have a look at Best practices. The list of all annotations to SIMBAD objects can be found here .

Currently no annotations available

add an annotation to this object

report an error concerning the data of this object


To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:objects in 2021A&A...649A.148S and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu


2022.05.28-09:54:57

© Université de Strasbourg/CNRS

    • Contact