2021A&A...650A.154P


Query : 2021A&A...650A.154P

2021A&A...650A.154P - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 650A, 154-154 (2021/6-1)

The CaFe project: Optical Fe II and near-infrared Ca II triplet emission in active galaxies: simulated EWs and the co-dependence of cloud size and metal content.

PANDA S.

Abstract (from CDS):


Aims. Modelling the low-ionisation lines (LILs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) still faces problems in explaining the observed equivalent widths (EWs) when realistic covering factors are used and the distance of the broad-line region (BLR) from the centre is assumed to be consistent with the reverberation mapping measurements. We re-emphasise this problem and suggest that the BLR 'sees' a different continuum from that seen by a distant observer. This change in the continuum reflected in the change in the net bolometric luminosity from the AGN is then able to resolve the above problem.
Methods. We carefully examine the optical FeII and near-infrared (NIR) CaII triplet (CaT) emission strengths with respect to Hβ emission using the photoionisation code CLOUDY and a range of physical parameters. Prominent among these parameters are (a) the ionisation parameter (U), (b) the local BLR cloud density (nH), (c) the metal content in the BLR cloud, and (d) the cloud column density. Using an incident continuum for I Zw 1 -a prototypical Type-1 narrow-line Seyfert galaxy- our basic setup is able to recover the line ratios for the optical FeII (i.e. RFeII) and for the NIR CaT (i.e. RCaT) in agreement with the observed estimates. Nevertheless, the pairs of (U,nH) that reproduce the conforming line ratios do not relate to agreeable line EWs. We therefore propose a way to mitigate this issue. The LIL region of the BLR cloud does not see the same continuum emitted by the accretion disc as that seen by a distant observer; rather it sees a filtered version of the original continuum which brings the radial sizes into agreement with the reverberation mapped estimates for the extension of the BLR. This is achieved by scaling the radial distance of the emitting regions from the central continuum source using the photoionisation method in correspondence with the reverberation mapping estimates for I Zw 1. Taking inspiration from past studies, we suggest that this collimation of the incident continuum can be explained by the anisotropic emission from the accretion disc, which modifies the spectral energy distribution such that the BLR receives a much cooler continuum with a reduced number of line-ionising photons, allowing reconciliation in the modelling with the line EWs.
Results. (1) The assumption of the filtered continuum as the source of BLR irradiation recovers realistic EWs for the LIL species, such as the Hβ, FeII, and CaT. However, our study finds that to account for the adequate RFeII (FeII/Hβ flux ratio) emission, the BLR needs to be selectively overabundant in iron. On the other hand, the RCaT (CaT/Hβ flux ratio) emission spans a broader range from solar to super-solar metallicities. In all these models, the BLR cloud density is found to be consistent with our conclusions from prior studies, that is, nH∼1012cm–3 is required for the sufficient emission of FeII and CaT. (2) We extend our modelling to test and confirm the co-dependence between metallicity and cloud column density for these two ionic species (FeII and CaT), further allowing us to constrain the physical parameter space for the emission of these LILs. Adopting the estimates from line ratios that diagnose the metallicity in these gas-rich media -which suggest super-solar values (≥5-10Z)-, we arrive at cloud columns that are of the order of 1024 cm–2. (3) Finally, we test the effect of inclusion of a micro-turbulent velocity within the BLR cloud and find that the FeII emission is positively affected. An interesting result obtained here is the reduction in the value of the metallicity by up to a factor of ten for the RFeII cases when the microturbulence is invoked, suggesting that microturbulence can act as an apparent metallicity controller for the FeII. On the contrary, the RCaT cases are relatively unaffected by the inclusion of microturbulence.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2021

Journal keyword(s): accretion - accretion disks - radiative transfer - methods: data analysis - galaxies: active - quasars: emission lines - galaxies: abundances

Simbad objects: 1

goto Full paper

goto View the references in ADS

Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 Mrk 1502 Sy1 00 53 34.9331107632 +12 41 35.929269132   14.41 14.03     ~ 1174 1

Query : 2021A&A...650A.154P

Basic data :
Mrk 1502 -- Seyfert 1 Galaxy
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
G (2016A&A,Mrk,...), QSO (2016ApJ,QSO,...), X (1AXG,2E,...), IR (IRAS,2MASSI,...), MIR (AKARI,WISEA,...), AGN (2016AJ,[HB91]), UV (PG,UVQS), Sy1 (2012ApJ), V* (AAVSO), * (Gaia), blu (PHL), gam (INTREF), Rad (NVSS), NIR (2MASS), Opt (SDSS)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
00 53 34.9331107632 +12 41 35.929269132 (Optical) [ 0.0339 0.0232 90 ] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
00 50 57.8091091715 +12 25 19.669844480 [ 0.0339 0.0232 90 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
123.7485225871663 -50.1750339656792 [ 0.0339 0.0232 90 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
0.172 0.105 [0.048 0.032 90] A 2020yCat.1350....0G
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, ∼=unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) 17778 [~] / z(emission) 0.061170 [~] / cz 18338.30 [~]
   (IR) C 2016ApJS..226...11S
Syntax of morphological type is : mtype quality bibcode
  • mtype : Hubble morphological class (spirals, ellipticals, etc)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the morphological type reference
Morphological type:
S0a D ~
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
0.48 0.35 156 (Opt) D 2003A&A...412...45P
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (11) :
B 14.41 [~] D 2010A&A...518A..10V
V 14.03 [~] D 2010A&A...518A..10V
G 14.277195 [0.004148] C 2020yCat.1350....0G
J 12.103 [0.030] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
H 11.105 [0.035] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
K 10.158 [0.023] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
u (AB) 15.323 [0.006] B 2012ApJS..203...21A
g (AB) 14.621 [0.004] B 2012ApJS..203...21A
r (AB) 14.171 [0.004] B 2012ApJS..203...21A
i (AB) 14.275 [0.002] B 2012ApJS..203...21A
z (AB) 13.690 [0.005] B 2012ApJS..203...21A
SIMBAD within arcmin
Overlay Simbad points in this preview
Back
All CDSPortal (CDSPortal)

Send to sendBySAMP sendBySAMP

sedIcon
within arcsec The VizieR photometry tool allows for easy visualization of photometry points extracted around the Simbad position from photometry-enabled catalogues in VizieR.
The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).
sed-help-icon
Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations.
notes:


The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (54) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

Mrk 1502 NFGS 6 SHELS 013.395554+12.693325 [VV2000] J005334.9+124136
AKARI-IRC-V1 J0053349+124135 NVSS J005334+124133 TIC 414808160 [VV2003] J005334.9+124136
1AXG J005334+1241 PG 0050+124 UGC 545 [VV2006] J005334.9+124136
CGPG 0051.0+1225 PG 0050+12 UVQS J005334.93+124135.9 [VV2010] J005334.9+124136
2E 209 PHL 3072 UZC J005334.9+124136 [VV96] J005334.9+124136
2E 0050.9+1225 PSCz Q00509+1225 WISEA J005334.93+124135.9 [VV98] J005334.9+124136
1ES 0050+12.4 QSO B0050+124 WISE J005334.93+124136.0 [WTW94] 0050+124
INTREF 52 QSO B0050+1225 2XMM J005334.9+124136 [WZX98] 00509+1225
IRAS 00509+1225 QSO B0051+124 ZW I 1 [ZEH2003] RX J0053.5+1241 2
IRAS F00509+1225 QSO J0053+1241 Z 0050.9+1225 AAVSO 0048+12
LEDA 3151 RBS 129 [BDW2002] q0050+1225 Gaia DR3 2776751268021474816
2MASS J00533492+1241359 RX J0053.5+1241 [DML87] 18 Gaia DR2 2776751268021474816
2MASSI J0053349+124135 1RXS J005335.3+124137 [HB91] 0050+124
2MASX J00533495+1241352 SDSS J005334.93+124135.9 [HVG99b] 00510+1225

References (1174 between 1850 and 2024) (Total 1174)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
Follow new references on this object
                Reference summaries :

                from: to:

                 or select by : (not exhaustive, explanation here)


Collections of Measurements


velocities : 13    PM : 2   

   

Observing logs


herschel : 12    ISO : 17    IUE : 12    XMM : 1   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : Mrk 1502

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

AKARI-IRC-V1 J0053349+124135 2E 209 IRAS 00509+1225 IRAS F00509+1225 2MASS J00533492+1241359
2MASSI J0053349+124135 2MASX J00533495+1241352 NVSS J005334+124133 PG 0050+124 PG 0050+12
PHL 3072 1RXS J005335.3+124137 SDSS J005334.93+124135.9 UGC 545 WISEA J005334.93+124135.9
WISE J005334.93+124136.0 [DML87] 18 Gaia DR3 2776751268021474816 Gaia DR2 2776751268021474816

Search by coordinates in Vizier (radius: 5 arcsec)


Annotations :
Annotations allow a user to add a note or report an error concerning the astronomical object and its data. It requires registration to post a note. See description .
Please, have a look at Best practices. The list of all annotations to SIMBAD objects can be found here .

Currently no annotations available

add an annotation to this object

report an error concerning the data of this object


To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:objects in 2021A&A...650A.154P and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu