2022A&A...657A...9C


Query : 2022A&A...657A...9C

2022A&A...657A...9C - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 657A, 9-9 (2022/1-1)

Virgo filaments. I. Processing of gas in cosmological filaments around the Virgo cluster.

CASTIGNANI G., COMBES F., JABLONKA P., FINN R.A., RUDNICK G., VULCANI B., DESAI V., ZARITSKY D. and SALOME P.

Abstract (from CDS):

It is now well established that galaxies have different morphologies, gas contents, and star formation rates (SFR) in dense environments like galaxy clusters. The impact of environmental density extends to several virial radii, and galaxies appear to be pre-processed in filaments and groups before falling into the cluster. Our goal is to quantify this pre-processing in terms of gas content and SFR, as a function of density in cosmic filaments. We have observed the two first CO transitions in 163 galaxies with the IRAM-30 m telescope, and added 82 more measurements from the literature, thus forming a sample of 245 galaxies in the filaments around the Virgo cluster. We gathered HI-21cm measurements from the literature and observed 69 galaxies with the Nancay telescope to complete our sample. We compare our filament galaxies with comparable samples from the Virgo cluster and with the isolated galaxies of the AMIGA sample. We find a clear progression from field galaxies to filament and cluster galaxies for decreasing SFR, increasing fraction of galaxies in the quenching phase, an increasing proportion of early-type galaxies, and decreasing gas content. Galaxies in the quenching phase, defined as having a SFR below one-third of that of the main sequence (MS), are only between 0% and 20% in the isolated sample, according to local galaxy density, while they are 20%-60% in the filaments and 30%-80% in the Virgo cluster. Processes that lead to star formation quenching are already at play in filaments; they depend mostly on the local galaxy density, while the distance to the filament spine is a secondary parameter. While the HI-to-stellar-mass ratio decreases with local density by an order of magnitude in the filaments, and two orders of magnitude in the Virgo cluster with respect to the field, the decrease is much less for the H2-to-stellar-mass ratio. As the environmental density increases, the gas depletion time decreases, because the gas content decreases faster than the SFR. This suggests that gas depletion precedes star formation quenching.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2021

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: clusters: general - galaxies: star formation - molecular data - ISM: general

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/657/A9): tablea1.dat-tablea6.dat listsp.dat spco/* sphi/*>

Status at CDS : Tables of objects will be appraised for possible ingestion in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 96

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Number of rows : 96
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 ESO 411-11 EmG 00 46 40.7384296152 -27 53 54.202334100   15.89 14.25 14.57   ~ 11 0
2 MCG+04-19-007 EmG 07 53 45.281 +21 02 57.93   14.90       ~ 28 0
3 IC 2256 GiG 08 16 54.414 +24 10 37.30   15.2       ~ 27 0
4 NGC 2577 GiP 08 22 43.4495600280 +22 33 11.142071640   13.8       ~ 117 0
5 UGC 4375 GiP 08 23 11.2783197672 +22 39 52.797489408   14.6       ~ 85 0
6 IC 2361 G 08 25 44.4979589400 +27 52 28.173810396   14.9       ~ 40 0
7 UGC 4395 G 08 25 47.580 +28 07 06.14   15.5       ~ 34 0
8 NGC 2592 G 08 27 08.0516435904 +25 58 13.122058224   13.6       ~ 109 0
9 NGC 2594 G 08 27 17.1616179576 +25 52 43.686523164   15.0       ~ 49 0
10 MCG+08-16-005 Sy1 08 27 18.047 +46 02 02.44   16       ~ 9 0
11 NGC 2604 GiP 08 33 23.057 +29 32 19.03   15.38 14.92     ~ 103 0
12 Z 149-50 G 08 33 42.612 +27 42 43.96   15.1       ~ 16 0
13 NGC 2608 IG 08 35 17.3298089184 +28 28 24.236326236   13.2       ~ 170 0
14 UGC 4551 G 08 44 05.9308682352 +49 47 37.870900980 13.87 13.40 12.46     ~ 92 1
15 UGC 4559 G 08 44 07.6766375736 +30 07 08.393939292   14.7       ~ 68 0
16 LEDA 1925809 GiP 08 51 32.016 +30 58 03.57   16.0       ~ 8 0
17 NGC 2679 GiP 08 51 32.9418201528 +30 51 55.211530176   14.3       ~ 68 0
18 UGC 4659 EmG 08 54 40.3033010496 +47 06 13.647684240   15.50       ~ 65 0
19 2MASX J08553314+3112417 Q? 08 55 33.1903733064 +31 12 42.129086904   16.17       ~ 28 0
20 NGC 2712 G 08 59 30.4854395352 +44 54 50.079495852   12.30       ~ 172 0
21 Z 150-56 G 09 00 13.3269004560 +31 59 54.444185664   15.2       ~ 15 0
22 UGC 4722 G 09 00 24.1397755728 +25 36 53.307023472   15.20       ~ 78 0
23 NGC 2780 GiP 09 12 44.3905229280 +34 55 31.725869052   14.2       ~ 81 0
24 NGC 2793 GiC 09 16 45.602 +34 25 54.51   13.9       ~ 71 0
25 IC 2450 EmG 09 17 05.310 +25 25 45.16   14.0       ~ 62 0
26 NGC 2799 GiP 09 17 31.0045889856 +41 59 38.595688980   14.32 13.71     ~ 122 1
27 NGC 2852 GiP 09 23 14.6019569160 +40 09 49.759151868   14.0       ~ 65 0
28 NGC 2859 G 09 24 18.5266762368 +34 30 48.561305832   11.8       ~ 247 0
29 UGC 5020 LSB 09 26 01.491 +34 39 12.41   15.3       ~ 57 0
30 2MASX J09360748+2906431 SBG 09 36 07.5262328208 +29 06 43.020010116   15.40 14.78     ~ 40 0
31 NGC 2964 GiP 09 42 54.251 +31 50 49.97   12.0       ~ 266 1
32 NGC 3032 AGN 09 52 08.1524118072 +29 14 10.364182440   13.87 13.28     ~ 244 0
33 NGC 3098 GiG 10 02 16.6969955520 +24 42 39.887384724   13.00       ~ 130 0
34 IC 598 LIN 10 12 48.5669270904 +43 08 43.971776304   13.8       ~ 50 0
35 NGC 3193 GiP 10 18 24.884 +21 53 38.32 12.29 11.83 10.88 12.19   ~ 279 1
36 NGC 3245 GiP 10 27 18.3864983136 +28 30 26.621599932   11.6       ~ 332 0
37 NGC 3248 GiG 10 27 45.4389454896 +22 50 49.805614320   13.9       ~ 72 0
38 NGC 3265 GiG 10 31 06.768 +28 47 47.98   13.87 13.54     ~ 155 1
39 NGC 3277 Sy2 10 32 55.4484213912 +28 30 42.279280956 12.74 12.50 11.68     ~ 133 1
40 Z 124-41 G 10 35 42.0244753152 +26 07 32.903764932   15.3       ~ 28 0
41 NGC 3294 G 10 36 16.2564642096 +37 19 29.049225924   11.5       ~ 194 0
42 LEDA 2333993 G 11 16 46.009 +49 07 02.59           ~ 4 0
43 NAME NGC 3607 Group GrG 11 17 55.9 +18 07 35   9.9       ~ 54 0
44 UGC 6326 LSB 11 18 32.084 +37 56 53.92   16.0       ~ 12 0
45 MCG+07-24-001 G 11 23 01.571 +38 31 12.08   15       ~ 10 0
46 LEDA 2139858 G 11 27 01.662 +38 55 49.53           ~ 6 0
47 UGC 6455 G 11 27 22.093 +40 00 47.10   15.6       ~ 9 0
48 MCG+07-24-017 G 11 30 33.332 +38 14 26.39   15.5 15.63     ~ 14 0
49 MCG+07-24-018 G 11 30 35.2885975776 +39 24 59.904216180   16       ~ 5 0
50 Z 185-76 G 11 31 07.394 +35 35 22.43   15.6       ~ 8 0
51 NAME Crater Cluster GlC 11 36 16.20 -10 52 38.8           ~ 77 1
52 UGC 7039 GiC 12 03 50.515 +16 33 16.66   15.6       ~ 26 0
53 UGC 7143 GiG 12 09 46.714 +25 01 33.83   14.6       ~ 48 0
54 NGC 4144 GiG 12 09 58.601 +46 27 25.85   12.17   11.50   ~ 227 0
55 NGC 4151 Sy1 12 10 32.5759813872 +39 24 21.063527532   12.18 11.48     ~ 3574 2
56 2MASX J12115772+2001397 GiC 12 11 57.7593256344 +20 01 40.276606296   15.3       ~ 16 0
57 NGC 4228 SBG 12 15 39.174 +36 19 36.80 10.63 10.30 9.93 9.74   ~ 928 1
58 NGC 4244 GiG 12 17 29.659 +37 48 25.60   10.71   9.99   ~ 541 1
59 IC 777 GiC 12 19 23.815 +28 18 35.57   14.5       ~ 35 0
60 NGC 4414 GiG 12 26 27.1276893168 +31 13 24.626206488 11.12 10.96 10.12     ~ 549 2
61 NAME Virgo Cluster ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24           ~ 6379 0
62 NAME CVn I Group GrG 12 32 48.3 +33 57 07           ~ 139 0
63 NGC 4559 H2G 12 35 57.6402869976 +27 57 35.859278160   10.46 10.01     ~ 593 1
64 NAME NGP reg 12 51 26.275 +27 07 41.70           ~ 1131 0
65 ACO 1656 ClG 12 59 48.7 +27 58 50           ~ 4599 2
66 NGC 5016 AGN 13 12 06.6662685192 +24 05 41.945286156   13.180 12.558 12.093 11.547 ~ 153 0
67 NGC 5089 EmG 13 19 39.298 +30 15 22.76   14.4       ~ 55 0
68 IC 4263 LSB 13 28 33.530 +46 55 38.27   15.10       ~ 47 1
69 NGC 5240 Sy2 13 35 55.2001936128 +35 35 17.720669652   14.1       ~ 63 0
70 UGC 8656 G 13 40 29.788 +42 59 32.67   15.4       ~ 23 0
71 LEDA 214137 G 13 40 31.22 +42 59 38.6           ~ 5 0
72 NGC 5290 Sy2 13 45 19.1579940768 +41 42 44.473535424   17.80 16.50     ~ 154 0
73 Mrk 1484 G 13 48 45.139 +41 42 34.65   15.6   14.01   ~ 27 0
74 NGC 5311 SyG 13 48 56.0676753576 +39 59 06.644374008 14.77 14.35 13.30 12.76 12.03 ~ 70 1
75 2MASX J13522492+3933269 GiP 13 52 24.924 +39 33 26.98       14.96   ~ 9 0
76 NGC 5350 GiP 13 53 21.6232753416 +40 21 50.186768184   12.4   10.99   ~ 224 1
77 NGC 5353 GiP 13 53 26.7104646984 +40 16 59.200050612   11.8   10.57   ~ 272 1
78 HCG 68 CGG 13 53 40.9 +40 19 07     12.4     ~ 111 0
79 2MASX J13535955+3942557 G 13 53 59.557 +39 42 55.72   15.7   14.44   ~ 7 0
80 NGC 5375 LIN 13 56 56.0072063832 +29 09 51.653612304   12.78 12.08 11.65 11.65 ~ 120 1
81 UGC 9556 EmG 14 49 46.025 +60 23 55.30   15.30       ~ 54 0
82 NGC 5846 BiC 15 06 29.253 +01 36 20.29   11.9   9.74   ~ 821 1
83 LEDA 2578846 G 15 18 27.058 +58 26 58.56           ~ 5 0
84 UGC 9837 LSB 15 23 51.735 +58 03 11.23   14.6       ~ 73 0
85 NGC 5985 SyG 15 39 37.0545742176 +59 19 55.216886664   15.24 14.22     ~ 239 0
86 NGC 6012 G 15 54 13.9048137432 +14 36 04.278408300   13.209 12.420 11.870 11.195 ~ 125 0
87 NGC 6149 LIN 16 27 24.2315841696 +19 35 49.852602960   14.8       ~ 54 0
88 UGC 10968 G 17 44 10.459 +57 59 15.74   16.0       ~ 9 0
89 NAME Serpens Cloud SFR 18 29 49 +01 14.8           ~ 1049 2
90 NAME LMi GrG ~ ~           ~ 6 0
91 NAME Laniakea Supercluster SCG ~ ~           ~ 44 0
92 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7893 0
93 NAME Vir III Complex GrG ~ ~           ~ 13 1
94 NAME Draco Cluster Cl* ~ ~           ~ 10 0
95 NAME Leo Cloud Cld ~ ~           ~ 59 0
96 NAME Virgo Extension GrG ~ ~           ~ 51 0

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2023.01.30-21:34:37

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