2022A&A...657A..70P


Query : 2022A&A...657A..70P

2022A&A...657A..70P - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 657A, 70-70 (2022/1-1)

Linking high- and low-mass star formation. Observation-based continuum modelling and physical conditions,.

PITTS R.L., KRISTENSEN L.E., JORGENSEN J.K. and VAN DER WALT S.J.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. Astronomers have yet to establish whether high-mass protostars form from high-mass prestellar cores, similar to their lower-mass counterparts, or from lower-mass fragments at the heart of a pre-protostellar cluster undergoing large-scale collapse. Part of the uncertainty is due to a shortage of envelope structure data on protostars of a few tens of solar masses, where we expect to see a transition from intermediate-mass star formation to the high-mass process.
Aims. We sought to derive the masses, luminosities, and envelope density profiles for eight sources in Cygnus-X, whose mass estimates in the literature placed them in the sampling gap. Combining these sources with similarly evolved sources in the literature enabled us to perform a meta-analysis of protostellar envelope parameters over six decades in source luminosity.
Methods. We performed spectral energy distribution fitting on archival broadband photometric continuum data from 1.2 to 850 µm to derive bolometric luminosities for our eight sources plus initial mass and radius estimates for modelling density and temperature profiles with the radiative-transfer package Transphere.
Results. The envelope masses, densities at 1000 AU, outer envelope radii, and density power law indices as functions of bolometric luminosity all follow established trends in the literature spanning six decades in luminosity. Most of our sources occupy an intermediate to moderately high range of masses and luminosities, which helps to more firmly establish the continuity between low- and high-mass star formation mechanisms. Our density power law indices are consistent with observed values in the literature, which show no discernible trends with luminosity, and have a mean p = -1.4 ±0.4. However, our sub-sample, with a mean power law index of -1.1 ±0.3, is slightly flatter than would be expected for spherical envelopes in free fall (p = -1.5).
Conclusions. We attribute flattened density profiles for our eight sources to one or more of the following: ongoing accretion from their natal filaments, convolution of sources with neighbours or the larger filament, spherical averaging of asymmetric features (for example fragments), or inflation of the envelope by a moderate far-ultraviolet field. Finally, we show that the trends in all of the envelope parameters for high-mass protostars are statistically indistinguishable from trends in the same variables for low-mass protostars.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2022

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - circumstellar matter - dust, extinction - submillimeter: stars - submillimeter: ISM - stars: protostars

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/657/A70): stars.dat tablea1.dat fig6data.dat list.dat fits/*>

Status at CDS : Tables of objects will be appraised for possible ingestion in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 29

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Number of rows : 29
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 [MBS2007c] CygX-S7 mm 20 20 38.0 +39 38 20           ~ 1 0
2 [MBS2007c] CygX-S8 mm 20 20 38.8 +39 37 51           ~ 2 0
3 LBN 077.61+01.59 HII 20 20 39.3 +39 37 52           ~ 76 0
4 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 757 1
5 [MBS2007c] CygX-S26 mm 20 29 24.8 +40 11 18           ~ 2 0
6 RAFGL 2591 Y*O 20 29 24.8230 +40 11 19.590           ~ 605 0
7 Ass Cyg OB 2 As* 20 33.2 +41 19           ~ 890 0
8 NAME Cygnus X South MoC 20 34.0 +39 35           ~ 8 0
9 DR 17 HII 20 35.2 +42 25           ~ 41 0
10 [MBS2007c] CygX-N12 mm 20 36 57.40 +42 11 27.5           ~ 10 0
11 2MASS J20365781+4211303 Y*O 20 36 57.81 +42 11 30.3           ~ 5 0
12 [HRB81] W75N(Ba) HII 20 38 36.445 +42 37 34.82           ~ 47 0
13 NAME W75N(B) HII 20 38 36.46 +42 37 34.9           ~ 40 0
14 [TGR97] VLA 2 HII 20 38 36.482 +42 37 34.08           ~ 53 0
15 [HRB81] W75N(Bb) HII 20 38 36.486 +42 37 33.44           ~ 33 0
16 [MBS2007c] CygX-N31 mm 20 38 36.9 +42 37 50           ~ 1 0
17 NAME DR 21(OH) W PoC 20 38 58.8 +42 22 20           ~ 15 0
18 [MBS2007c] CygX-N38 IR 20 38 59.00 +42 22 23.9           ~ 7 0
19 NAME DR 21(OH) S PoC 20 39 01.1 +42 22 12           ~ 20 0
20 [MBS2007c] CygX-N48 IR 20 39 01.36 +42 22 06.7           ~ 17 0
21 GRS G081.70 +00.50 SFR 20 39 01.6 +42 19 38           O4.5 1018 0
22 MSX6C G081.7522+00.5906 Y*O 20 39 01.9930 +42 24 59.290           ~ 26 0
23 2MASS J20390285+4222001 Y*O 20 39 02.85336 +42 22 00.1992           ~ 11 0
24 NAME W 75S FIR 3 Y*O 20 39 02.97 +42 25 52.5           ~ 20 0
25 [MBS2007c] CygX-N52 mm 20 39 03.0 +42 26 15           ~ 1 0
26 [MBS2007c] CygX-N53 mm 20 39 03.2 +42 25 49           ~ 16 0
27 [MBS2007c] CygX-N54 mm 20 39 03.6 +42 25 30           ~ 2 0
28 [MBS2007c] CygX-N63 mm 20 40 05.2 +41 32 13           ~ 17 0
29 BGPS G081.174-00.100 mm 20 40 05.2323 +41 32 17.054           ~ 7 0

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2023.01.31-01:06:42

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