2022A&A...657A..72M


Query : 2022A&A...657A..72M

2022A&A...657A..72M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 657A, 72-72 (2022/1-1)

Escape from the Bermuda cluster: Orphanization by multiple stellar ejections.

MAIZ APELLANIZ J., PANTALEONI GONZALEZ M., BARBA R.H. and WEILER M.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. Dynamical interactions in young stellar clusters can eject massive stars early in their lives and significantly alter their mass functions. If all of the most massive stars are lost, we are left with an orphan cluster.
Aims. We study the Bermuda cluster (Villafranca O-014 NW), the most significant young stellar group in the North America and Pelican nebulae, and the massive stars that may have been ejected from it to test if it has been orphaned.
Methods. We use Gaia EDR3 parallaxes and proper motions to search for walkaway and runaway stars in the vicinity of the North America and Pelican nebulae. The candidates are analyzed with a combination of spectroscopy and photometry to assess their nature and their trajectories are traced back in time to determine at what time they left the Bermuda cluster.
Results. We detect three ejection events, dubbed the Bajamar, Toronto, and HD 201 795 events, which expelled (a minimum of) five, two, and two systems, respectively, or six, three, and three stars if we count the individual components in spectroscopic and eclipsing binaries. The events took place 1.611 ±0.011 Ma, 1.496 ±0.044 Ma, and 1.905 ±0.037 Ma ago, respectively, but our analysis is marginally consistent with the first two being simultaneous. We detect bow shocks in WISE images associated with four of the ejected systems; their orientation agrees with that of their relative proper motions with respect to the cluster. Combining the three events, the Bermuda cluster has lost over 200 M, including its three most massive stars, so it can be rightfully considered an orphan cluster. One consequence is that the present-day mass function of the cluster has been radically altered from its top-heavy initial value to one compatible with a Kroupa-like function. Another is that the cluster is currently expanding with a dynamical timescale consistent with the cause being the ejection events. A scenario in which the Bermuda cluster was formed in a conveyor-belt fashion over several hundreds of ka or even 1 Ma is consistent with all the observables.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2022

Journal keyword(s): astrometry - open clusters and associations: general - stars: kinematics and dynamics - stars: early-type - open clusters and associations: individual: Villafranca O-014 NW - binaries: general

CDS comments: Villafranca O-014 and O-014 NW not in Simbad.

Simbad objects: 36

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Number of rows : 36
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 NAME Orion Nebula Cluster OpC 05 35.0 -05 29           ~ 2206 1
2 * tet01 Ori C SB* 05 35 16.4662967280 -05 23 22.921811880 4.20 5.15 5.13 4.91 4.73 O7Vp 1367 1
3 UCAC4 105-014417 WR* 05 38 55.5222410976 -69 04 26.809579344   16.66 16.08   14.89 WN5h 57 0
4 Cl Haffner 18 OpC 07 52 40 -26 23.2   10.09 9.3     ~ 52 1
5 SS 215 Em* 10 23 23.4905042448 -58 00 20.834862120   13.86 12.69 12.19 10.75 O2If*/WN5 20 0
6 Cl Westerlund 2 OpC 10 23 58.1 -57 45 49           ~ 329 0
7 WR 20c WR* 10 25 02.6119040592 -57 21 47.351428776   20.10 17.51 16.89 13.35 O2If*/WN6 14 0
8 WR 21a WR* 10 25 56.5024585224 -57 48 43.519215708     12.67     O2If*/WN5 89 0
9 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 13430 0
10 TYC 6277-1821-1 * 18 21 46.1925860472 -21 06 04.336953336 12.83 12.86 11.73 11.39   OB+ 18 0
11 HD 227090 * 20 00 39.6060037824 +36 41 22.904659500   11.32 10.76     A2 6 0
12 LS III +41 20 * 20 22 37.7657038824 +41 40 29.253851472   11.80 10.81     O5If 11 0
13 TYC 3157-918-1 * 20 30 30.7351296312 +40 21 54.225859392   11.17 10.86     ~ 2 0
14 HD 195965 * 20 32 25.5891987312 +48 12 59.317612308 6.03 6.899 6.974     B0V 112 0
15 HD 195695 PM* 20 32 30.5911186944 +10 00 58.180410648       8.5   G 13 0
16 BD+43 3654 s*b 20 33 36.0795027528 +43 59 07.364004504   11.24 10.06     O4If 61 0
17 * alf Cyg sg* 20 41 25.91514 +45 16 49.2197 1.11 1.34 1.25 1.14 1.04 A2Ia 740 0
18 NGC 6960 ISM 20 45 38.0 +30 42 30           ~ 70 0
19 TYC 3179-733-1 * 20 50 27.3379577232 +44 42 13.237156476   12.59 11.69     ~ 1 0
20 NAME Cyg Loop SNR 20 51.0 +30 40           ~ 883 0
21 IC 5070 HII 20 51.0 +44 22           ~ 201 1
22 2MASS J20512895+4404230 Y*O 20 51 28.9541008878 +44 04 23.133766982           ~ 2 0
23 ATO J313.0989+44.6042 Y*O 20 52 23.7464006064 +44 36 15.171998292           ~ 4 0
24 2MASS J20522503+4437562 IR 20 52 25.03704 +44 37 56.2008           ~ 2 0
25 EM* LkHA 176 Ae* 20 52 58.8331893936 +44 15 03.790168956   12.872 12.100   10.992 B5ne 20 0
26 2MASS J20530782+4409456 IR 20 53 07.82304 +44 09 45.6804           ~ 1 0
27 2MASS J20531694+4424298 IR 20 53 16.94496 +44 24 29.8620           ~ 2 0
28 TYC 3179-615-1 * 20 53 34.1871297576 +44 09 07.062735888   11.97 11.42     B3V 5 0
29 TYC 3179-756-1 * 20 54 34.7221654200 +44 02 42.509309460   12.19 11.14     ~ 3 0
30 TYC 3575-1514-1 * 20 55 05.4110970816 +45 25 01.672180032   11.36 11.07     ~ 1 0
31 [SL2008c] 8 * 20 55 51.2556248952 +43 52 24.463877376     13.24     O3.5III(f*)+O8 23 1
32 HD 199579 SB* 20 56 34.7779063080 +44 55 29.000891928 5.16 6.01 5.96     O6.5V((f))z 357 0
33 NGC 7000 Cl* 20 58 47 +44 19.8           ~ 389 0
34 V* V1898 Cyg EB* 21 03 53.7955417872 +46 19 49.925425368 7 7.80 7.82     B2IV 58 0
35 HD 201795 * 21 10 38.5495121016 +38 57 40.324573944 6.61 7.50 7.53     B1V 37 0
36 * lam Cep s*b 22 11 30.5765111040 +59 24 52.154264880 4.55 5.29 5.05 4.77 4.62 O6.5I(n)fp 671 1

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2023.01.27-18:28:16

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