2022A&A...666A.127A


Query : 2022A&A...666A.127A

2022A&A...666A.127A - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 666A, 127 (2022/10-1)

Black hole mass estimation using X-ray variability measurements in Seyfert galaxies.

AKYLAS A., PAPADAKIS I. and GEORGAKAKIS A.

Abstract (from CDS):


Aims. Our objective is to critically assess the X-ray flux variability as a tool for measuring the black hole (BH) mass in active galactic nuclei (AGN). We aim to establish a prescription for estimating BH masses based on measurements of the normalised excess variance from X-ray data. We discuss the minimum requirements in terms of the light-curve duration and X-ray signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to enable a reliable determination that is comparable to what can be derived from the continuum and emission line reverberation studies.
Methods. We used the light curves of local Seyfert from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray mission (NuSTAR), to compute the normalised excess variance ($ {\sigma ^2_{\rm NXV}} $) in the 3-10 and 10-20 keV bands, thus extending the analysis to an energy band higher than 10 keV. The excess variance measurements were then combined with independent BH mass estimates from the literature to establish the MBH vs. $ {\sigma ^2_{\rm NXV}} $ relation for different samples and weigh its accuracy in terms of the light-curve duration and X-ray S/N.
Results. We find that it is possible to accurately measure the BH mass in AGN using excess variance measurements in the 3-10 and the 10-20 keV bands, however, strong quality requirements should be applied. The minimum necessary S/N and duration of the light curves used to compute the excess variance ought to be ∼3 and ∼80 - 100 ks, respectively. We provide a linear relationship between the normalised excess variance and the black hole mass that can be used to estimate the latter, with an average uncertainty of the order of 0.4 - 0.25 dex (depending on the adopted light-curve segment duration). In general, BH mass estimates from 3-10 keV and 10-20 keV band light curves are expected to be similar. The 10-20 keV band is preferred for sources that are heavily absorbed and the 3-10 keV band is preferred for sources that may be dominated by the X-ray reflection component at energies above 10 keV.

Abstract Copyright: © A. Akylas et al. 2022

Journal keyword(s): black hole physics - X-rays: galaxies - galaxies: active - galaxies: Seyfert - accretion, accretion disks - quasars: supermassive black holes

Simbad objects: 156

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Number of rows : 156
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 Mrk 335 Sy1 00 06 19.5372339024 +20 12 10.617404076   14.19 13.85     ~ 1255 0
2 IC 1657 Sy2 01 14 07.018 -32 39 03.23   13.16   12.02 13.0 ~ 116 0
3 LEDA 4468 Sy2 01 14 24.9356626320 -55 23 49.309036656   13.13 13.58 11.93   ~ 85 0
4 MCG+08-03-018 Sy2 01 22 34.4194292400 +50 03 17.867834532   16       ~ 41 0
5 ESO 113-45 Sy1 01 23 45.7631533440 -58 48 20.808928944   14.08 13.83 13.34   ~ 882 0
6 NGC 513 Sy2 01 24 26.8053520680 +33 47 58.224514236   13.4 13.40     ~ 187 2
7 Mrk 359 Sy1 01 27 32.5217343720 +19 10 43.839069600   14.89 14.22     ~ 311 0
8 ESO 244-30 Sy2 01 29 51.237 -42 19 35.33   14.81   13.82   ~ 49 0
9 NGC 612 Sy2 01 33 57.751 -36 29 35.80   13.90 13.15 12.33   ~ 236 0
10 NGC 788 Sy2 02 01 06.4628889816 -06 48 57.149808084   13.71 12.76 11.79   ~ 266 0
11 NGC 863 Sy1 02 14 33.5604714720 -00 46 00.181845336   14.48 13.81 17.9   ~ 693 0
12 M 77 Sy2 02 42 40.7091669408 -00 00 47.859690204 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4610 2
13 NGC 1125 Sy2 02 51 40.44 -16 39 02.4   13.98 13.13 12.48   ~ 136 0
14 NGC 1142 Sy2 02 55 12.2311509144 -00 11 00.807149472   15.42 14.41     ~ 330 1
15 NGC 1194 Sy2 03 03 49.1124029328 -01 06 13.415103900   15.29 14.18     ~ 261 0
16 NGC 1229 Sy2 03 08 10.8346520856 -22 57 36.937886004   14.87 14.45 13.86   ~ 81 0
17 UGC 2638 Sy2 03 17 02.152 +01 15 18.07   16.0       ~ 49 0
18 NGC 1320 Sy2 03 24 48.6886857672 -03 02 32.121533436   14.0 14.00     ~ 282 0
19 NGC 1365 Sy1 03 33 36.458 -36 08 26.37 10.48 10.08 9.63 8.79 9.7 ~ 1808 2
20 3C 111 Sy1 04 18 21.2772425736 +38 01 35.801359968   19.75 18.05     ~ 953 1
21 NGC 1566 Sy1 04 20 00.3968473248 -54 56 16.624708764 10.29 10.19 9.73 9.21 10.1 ~ 912 2
22 LEDA 3095692 Sy1 04 37 28.1562436872 -47 11 29.481984132 14.68 16.61 14.95 15.43   ~ 84 0
23 Z 420-15 Sy2 04 53 25.7402917464 +04 03 41.809965948   15.0       ~ 121 0
24 Z 468-2 Sy2 05 08 19.7062775592 +17 21 48.085162020   15.4       ~ 111 0
25 Mrk 1095 Sy1 05 16 11.4092471904 -00 08 59.157166920   14.30 13.92     ~ 891 1
26 NAME Pic A Sy1 05 19 49.7229323856 -45 46 43.852662732   15.73 15.77 14.85   ~ 668 1
27 ESO 553-43 Sy2 05 26 27.2768102400 -21 17 11.759297352   14.84   12.96   ~ 38 0
28 NGC 2110 Sy2 05 52 11.3768668776 -07 27 22.507465392   14.77 13.51 11.86   ~ 668 1
29 UGC 3374 Sy1 05 54 53.6080860768 +46 26 21.624853488   15.37 14.62     ~ 524 2
30 Mrk 3 Sy2 06 15 36.2812259376 +71 02 14.837219808 14.21 14.03 12.97     ~ 918 3
31 LEDA 19157 Sy2 06 30 25.5433597128 +63 40 41.294696952   15.7       ~ 56 2
32 LEDA 2013778 Sy2 06 41 18.0138665424 +32 49 31.634879160           ~ 35 0
33 NGC 2273 Sy2 06 50 08.6691789600 +60 50 44.864645136   14.50 13.54     ~ 529 3
34 UGC 3601 Sy1 06 55 49.5309613440 +40 00 01.122949404   14.5       ~ 60 0
35 UGC 3752 Sy2 07 14 03.876 +35 16 45.59   14.5       ~ 71 0
36 UGC 3995 B Sy2 07 44 09.1275236304 +29 14 50.762711400   13.28       ~ 128 1
37 UGC 4211 Sy2 08 04 46.4040459432 +10 46 36.016606848   14.9       ~ 67 0
38 MCG-01-22-006 Sy2 08 23 01.0958556600 -04 56 05.578315548   15.62   14.36   ~ 65 0
39 Z 150-14 Sy2 08 40 02.336 +29 49 02.73   20.00 19.62     ~ 193 1
40 SDSS J084344.98+354942.0 Sy2 08 43 44.9739924504 +35 49 42.113462340   17.93 17.55     ~ 48 0
41 Mrk 18 Sy2 09 01 58.4045747160 +60 09 06.140115576   14.3       ~ 120 0
42 NGC 2788A Sy2 09 02 39.4880829000 -68 13 36.653289168   13.98   12.33   ~ 77 0
43 [VV96] J091609.5-621929 Sy1 09 16 09.3662148312 -62 19 29.562130128   12.51 12.26 11.5   ~ 143 0
44 IC 2461 Sy2 09 19 58.030 +37 11 27.77   15.1       ~ 138 0
45 MCG-01-24-012 Sy2 09 20 46.2617017368 -08 03 21.933760068   17.86 17.34     ~ 148 0
46 Mrk 110 Sy1 09 25 12.8479065576 +52 17 10.386311208   16.82 16.41     ~ 607 0
47 UGC 5101 Sy2 09 35 51.6045544584 +61 21 11.589382368   15.20 15.50     ~ 575 4
48 NGC 2992 Sy2 09 45 42.045 -14 19 34.90 13.54 13.14 12.18 12.6 12.2 ~ 892 3
49 ESO 434-40 Sy2 09 47 40.1332188528 -30 56 55.960779696   14.10 13.69 12.44   ~ 557 0
50 4C 73.08 Sy2 09 49 45.967 +73 14 23.25   16.00   11.7   ~ 120 1
51 NGC 3081 Sy2 09 59 29.5437024336 -22 49 34.747341960   13.06 13.55 11.67 12.1 ~ 469 0
52 NGC 3079 Sy2 10 01 57.8789863992 +55 40 47.449758324 11.57 11.54 10.86     ~ 1393 3
53 NGC 3227 Sy1 10 23 30.5765149296 +19 51 54.282206700   12.61 11.79     ~ 1709 1
54 LEDA 93974 Sy2 10 40 22.313 -46 25 26.45   16.8       ~ 87 0
55 UGC 5856 Sy2 10 44 48.9715174464 +38 10 51.875661000   15.1       ~ 53 0
56 UGC 5881 Sy2 10 46 42.516 +25 55 53.57   15.0       ~ 83 0
57 NGC 3393 Sy2 10 48 23.4653152920 -25 09 43.487648784   13.10 13.95 11.67 12.2 ~ 427 1
58 Mrk 417 Sy2 10 49 30.9259950912 +22 57 52.375267800   16.0       ~ 93 0
59 Z 291-28 Sy2 11 05 59.0221870176 +58 56 45.711416220   15.7       ~ 39 0
60 NGC 3516 Sy1 11 06 47.4632200800 +72 34 07.298374656   13.12 12.40     ~ 1545 0
61 IC 2637 Sy1 11 13 49.7498269440 +09 35 10.582251468   14.88 14.17     ~ 139 0
62 NGC 3588 Sy2 11 14 02.4860685264 +20 23 14.240590728   15.3       ~ 38 0
63 Mrk 40 Sy1 11 25 36.1539761184 +54 22 57.113791824   17.06 16.47     ~ 275 0
64 NGC 3718 Sy2 11 32 34.8571790688 +53 04 04.520222040   11.35 10.61     ~ 384 1
65 LEDA 801745 Sy2 11 38 51.0052630080 -23 21 35.346868704   17.4       ~ 54 0
66 NGC 3783 Sy1 11 39 01.7096819040 -37 44 19.009642992   12.46 13.43 11.33 12.1 ~ 1651 0
67 NGC 3786 Sy2 11 39 42.5121341928 +31 54 33.971791752   14.62 13.74     ~ 395 1
68 UGC 6728 Sy1 11 45 15.9436381824 +79 40 53.376659220   14.8 15.2     ~ 122 0
69 UGC 6732 Sy2 11 45 33.1262678160 +58 58 41.336783112   13.33 13.17     ~ 68 0
70 ATO J176.4186-18.4541 Sy1 11 45 40.4653497048 -18 27 14.962917636   14.63 14.29 10.5   ~ 170 0
71 IC 751 Sy2 11 58 52.597 +42 34 13.23   15.39 14.39     ~ 83 1
72 Mrk 1310 Sy1 12 01 14.3530384560 -03 40 41.015051940   16.31 15.89 14.780   ~ 193 0
73 LEDA 38038 Sy2 12 02 47.6234151336 -53 50 07.791323712   17.3       ~ 79 0
74 NGC 4051 Sy1 12 03 09.6101337312 +44 31 52.682601288   11.08 12.92 9.94   ~ 2167 1
75 NGC 4102 Sy2 12 06 23.0 +52 42 40   11.8       ~ 424 1
76 NGC 4151 Sy1 12 10 32.5759813872 +39 24 21.063527532   12.18 11.48     ~ 3698 2
77 Z 187-22 Sy2 12 13 09.3185820024 +32 35 46.856643792   15.7       ~ 33 0
78 7C 121146.50+294816.00 Sy1 12 14 17.8142672232 +29 31 43.179858912   16.43 15.33     ~ 93 1
79 NGC 4253 Sy1 12 18 26.5163572920 +29 48 46.531535472   14.34 13.57     ~ 1042 1
80 M 106 Sy2 12 18 57.620 +47 18 13.39   9.14 8.41 8.11   ~ 2365 3
81 NGC 4388 Sy2 12 25 46.820 +12 39 43.45 11.91 11.76 11.02     ~ 1347 2
82 NGC 4395 Sy2 12 25 48.8633109888 +33 32 48.700168152 10.84 10.54 10.11 9.98   ~ 1185 1
83 NGC 4507 Sy2 12 35 36.6338976888 -39 54 33.710416272   12.95 13.54 11.70 12.4 ~ 497 0
84 M 58 Sy2 12 37 43.5 +11 49 06 10.80 10.48 9.66     ~ 1081 2
85 ESO 506-27 Sy2 12 38 54.5928340392 -27 18 28.009897704   14.59   12.87   ~ 107 0
86 LEDA 170194 Sy2 12 39 06.2809500480 -16 10 47.224169760           ~ 102 0
87 NGC 4593 Sy1 12 39 39.4435107024 -05 20 39.034988448   13.95 13.15     ~ 1091 0
88 NGC 4941 Sy2 13 04 13.1036380320 -05 33 05.752803672   13.18 12.23 10.74   ~ 370 0
89 NGC 4939 Sy2 13 04 14.3280524928 -10 20 22.300454724   14.81 13.80 10.92   ~ 310 1
90 ESO 323-77 Sy2 13 06 26.1214861728 -40 24 52.595604396   13.58 13.42 12.01   ~ 247 0
91 NGC 4992 Sy2 13 09 05.5929226104 +11 38 02.824910124   14.6       ~ 125 0
92 NGC 5100 Sy2 13 20 59.5742831448 +08 58 42.014397036   15.1       ~ 65 1
93 MCG-03-34-064 Sy2 13 22 24.4583154360 -16 43 42.481822404   14   13.16   ~ 318 2
94 M 51 Sy2 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4333 4
95 ESO 509-38 Sy2 13 31 13.8377562624 -25 24 09.903879756   14.75 15.7 13.37 13.60 ~ 64 0
96 ESO 509-66 Sy2 13 34 39.6208983000 -23 26 47.629092300   16.60 16.6 15.19   ~ 76 1
97 ESO 383-35 Sy1 13 35 53.7691256160 -34 17 44.160716796   13.89 13.61 8.9   ~ 1490 0
98 NGC 5283 Sy2 13 41 05.7499712616 +67 40 19.967186280   14.97 14.05     ~ 257 0
99 Mrk 268 Sy2 13 41 11.1362655600 +30 22 41.249229816   15.60 14.66     ~ 183 0
100 NGC 5273 Sy1 13 42 08.3801616672 +35 39 15.467518836   14.01 13.12     ~ 470 0
101 2MASS J13473599-6037037 Sy2 13 47 36.00 -60 37 03.8         16.77 ~ 98 0
102 ESO 445-50 Sy1 13 49 19.2601801224 -30 18 34.213815504   13.81 13.66 12.18 12.35 ~ 807 0
103 Mrk 279 Sy1 13 53 03.4348964112 +69 18 29.410910460   15.15 14.46     ~ 762 0
104 LEDA 563146 Sy2 14 10 44.8075513080 -42 28 33.045836484   16.57   15.42   ~ 29 0
105 NAME Circinus Galaxy Sy2 14 13 09.906 -65 20 20.47   10.89 9.84 10.6 10.0 ~ 1222 2
106 NGC 5506 Sy2 14 13 14.8761010056 -03 12 27.556909272   15.25 14.38     ~ 1094 0
107 NGC 5548 Sy1 14 17 59.5400291832 +25 08 12.603122268   14.35 13.73     ~ 2716 0
108 ESO 511-30 Sy1 14 19 22.4047231584 -26 38 41.134476084   13.32 14.9 12.27 12.7 ~ 153 0
109 NGC 5610 Sy2 14 24 22.9284234432 +24 36 50.885303112   14.5       ~ 116 0
110 NGC 5674 Sy2 14 33 52.2788150880 +05 27 30.117378924   13.7 13.70     ~ 184 0
111 NGC 5683 Sy1 14 34 52.4587723488 +48 39 42.730942860   16.46 16.08     ~ 180 0
112 NGC 5728 Sy2 14 42 23.8918506576 -17 15 11.240783784   14.34 13.40     ~ 597 0
113 Z 164-19 Sy2 14 45 36.8464489536 +27 02 05.566485732   12.7 15.3 11.9   ~ 74 0
114 LEDA 3076910 Sy1 14 55 17.5192400136 -51 34 15.181812480           ~ 65 0
115 Mrk 1392 Sy1 15 05 56.5521472536 +03 42 26.339214780   15.80 15.50     ~ 134 0
116 2MASX J15064412+0351444 Sy2 15 06 44.1288370200 +03 51 44.335696500           ~ 26 0
117 Mrk 1393 Sy2 15 08 53.9542751376 -00 11 49.004597040   17.11 16.65     ~ 83 0
118 NGC 5899 Sy2 15 15 03.252 +42 02 59.47   14.19 13.21     ~ 201 0
119 Mrk 290 Sy1 15 35 52.4031021552 +57 54 09.515660508   15.55 15.27     ~ 532 0
120 NGC 5995 Sy2 15 48 24.9463652328 -13 45 27.241966908   14.66 13.69 13.17   ~ 165 0
121 Z 367-9 Sy2 16 19 19.3404347352 +81 02 47.387175972   15.5       ~ 44 0
122 LEDA 1695455 Sy2 16 31 15.546 +23 52 57.80   18.76 18.13     ~ 42 0
123 NGC 6232 Sy2 16 43 20.2476632184 +70 37 57.180386136   15.8       ~ 58 1
124 LEDA 214543 Sy2 16 50 42.7515304704 +04 36 18.277458984   15.5       ~ 48 0
125 ESO 138-1 Sy2 16 51 20.2789606296 -59 14 04.184655576   14.35 13.63 13.02   ~ 143 0
126 NGC 6240 Sy2 16 52 58.9 +02 24 03   14.31 13.37     ~ 1640 2
127 NGC 6300 Sy2 17 16 59.5418094960 -62 49 13.946588832   10.88 13.08 9.44 10.2 ~ 433 0
128 MCG+07-37-031 Sy2 18 16 11.6269888848 +42 39 37.250088768   15 16.1     ~ 40 1
129 CGMW 5-3333 Sy2 18 24 10.8250606296 +18 46 08.730561180           ~ 24 0
130 LEDA 3097193 Sy2 18 26 32.395 +32 51 30.03           ~ 25 0
131 LEDA 1365707 Sy2 18 30 50.6344608912 +09 28 41.902626540           ~ 40 0
132 ICRF J183503.3+324146 Sy1 18 35 03.3896172576 +32 41 46.855964616   16.50 15.39 10.50   ~ 653 1
133 ICRF J184208.9+794617 Sy1 18 42 08.9904975672 +79 46 17.127835104   16.06 15.38     ~ 1317 0
134 ESO 140-43 Sy1 18 44 53.9892878664 -62 21 52.874216640   14.14 14.10 12.94 13.1 ~ 247 0
135 ESO 25-2 Sy1 18 54 40.2641097576 -78 53 54.106126548   14.60 14.5 13.08 13.9 ~ 63 0
136 ESO 231-26 Sy2 19 13 14.7286305264 -50 10 58.410655968   16.43   15.04   ~ 36 0
137 ESO 141-55 Sy1 19 21 14.1473895816 -58 40 12.982437480   14.36 13.64 13.28   ~ 365 0
138 AKARI-IRC-V1 J1930138+341048 Sy1 19 30 13.8 +34 10 49   17.7   15.8   ~ 44 0
139 CXOU J194719.3+444942 Sy2 19 47 19.380 +44 49 42.51     15.7 17.2   ~ 53 0
140 3C 403.0 Sy2 19 52 15.7996999344 +02 30 24.238200816   15.42 16.5     ~ 338 1
141 Mrk 509 Sy1 20 44 09.7504483224 -10 43 24.727155528   13.35 13.12 10.7   ~ 1279 0
142 IRAS 21262+5643 Sy1 21 27 45.3941483856 +56 56 34.915920720       16.6   ~ 162 0
143 NGC 7130 Sy2 21 48 19.5412287192 -34 57 04.492024884   12.86 13.87 11.57   ~ 453 0
144 NGC 7172 Sy2 22 02 01.897 -31 52 11.60   12.72 13.61 11.15 25.10 ~ 534 1
145 ESO 533-50 Sy2 22 34 49.8230923608 -25 40 37.007789916   14.07   12.80   ~ 47 0
146 Mrk 915 Sy2 22 36 46.4981814408 -12 32 42.887039748   15.35 14.50 13.6   ~ 171 0
147 UGC 12138 Sy1 22 40 17.0609184456 +08 03 13.539839976   15.30 14.45     ~ 184 0
148 NAME MR 2251-178 Sy1 22 54 05.8858611984 -17 34 55.402233708   14.99 14.36 15.12   ~ 436 3
149 UGC 12282 Sy2 22 58 55.3158091320 +40 55 56.459598672   14.7       ~ 71 0
150 NGC 7469 Sy1 23 03 15.6 +08 52 26 12.60 13.00 12.34     ~ 2101 3
151 Mrk 926 Sy1 23 04 43.4776098480 -08 41 08.629476864   16.20 15.91 9.4   ~ 458 0
152 NGC 7479 Sy2 23 04 56.6432243448 +12 19 22.357387020 11.74 11.60 10.85 10.47 9.66 ~ 747 2
153 NGC 7582 Sy2 23 18 23.60 -42 22 13.3 11.62 10.92 10.62     ~ 908 2
154 LEDA 89420 Sy2 23 25 24.1886501280 -38 26 49.177796028   14.84 14.24     ~ 76 0
155 NGC 7682 Sy2 23 29 03.9181335984 +03 31 59.921415444   14.3       ~ 237 0
156 UGC 12741 Sy2 23 41 55.4678936808 +30 34 54.380419320   14.4       ~ 67 0

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