2022A&A...666A.137M


Query : 2022A&A...666A.137M

2022A&A...666A.137M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 666A, 137 (2022/10-1)

DoG-HiT: A novel VLBI multiscale imaging approach.

MULLER H. and LOBANOV A.P.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. Reconstructing images from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data with a sparse sampling of the Fourier domain (uv-coverage) constitutes an ill-posed deconvolution problem. It requires application of robust algorithms, maximizing the information extraction from all of the sampled spatial scales, and minimizing the influence of the unsampled scales on image quality.
Aims. We develop a new multiscale wavelet deconvolution algorithm, DoG-HiT, for imaging sparsely sampled interferometric data, which combines the difference of Gaussian (DoG) wavelets and hard image thresholding (HiT). Based on DoG-HiT, we propose a multistep imaging pipeline for analysis of interferometric data.
Methods. DoG-HiT applies the compressed sensing approach to imaging by employing a flexible DoG wavelet dictionary, which is designed to adapt smoothly to the uv-coverage. It uses closure properties as data fidelity terms only, initially, and performs nonconvex, nonsmooth optimization by an amplitude-conserving and total-flux-conserving, hard thresholding splitting. DoG-HiT calculates a multiresolution support as a side product. The final reconstruction is refined through self-calibration loops and imaging with amplitude and phase information applied for the multiresolution support only.
Results. We demonstrate the stability of DoG-HiT, and benchmark its performance against image reconstructions made with the CLEAN and regularized maximum-likelihood (RML) methods using synthetic data. The comparison shows that DoG-HiT matches the super-resolution achieved by the RML reconstructions and surpasses the sensitivity to extended emission reached by CLEAN.
Conclusions. The application of regularized maximum likelihood methods, outfitted with flexible multiscale wavelet dictionaries, to imaging of interferometric data, matches the performance of state-of-the art convex optimization imaging algorithms and requires fewer prior and user-defined constraints.

Abstract Copyright: © H. Müller and A. P. Lobanov 2022

Journal keyword(s): techniques: interferometric - techniques: image processing - techniques: high angular resolution - methods: numerical - galaxies: jets - galaxies: nuclei

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 M 87 AGN 12 30 49.42338414 +12 23 28.0436859 10.16 9.59 8.63   7.49 ~ 7221 3

Query : 2022A&A...666A.137M

Basic data :
M 87 -- Active Galaxy Nucleus
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
LIN (), BiC (), Rad (2020A&A,BWE,...), G (2014ApJS,APG,...), X (1A,2A,...), gam (1FGL,2FGL,...), AGN (2011ApJ,[VV2000c],...), GiC (ACSVCS,GIN,...), UV (2EUVE,EUVE,...), rG (2012MNRAS), AG? (2020MNRAS), IR (IRAS,[DML87]), QSO (QSO), BL? (2021MNRAS), GiG ([CHM2007]), * (Gaia), Opt (SDSS)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
12 30 49.42338414 +12 23 28.0436859 (Radio) [ 0.0304732 0.0308 0 ] A 2020A&A...644A.159C
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
12 28 17.60290329 +12 40 01.3345803 [ 0.0304732 0.0308 0 ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
283.77775499474 +74.49115452365 [ 0.0304732 0.0308 0 ]
Syntax of proper motions is : "pm-ra pm-dec [error ellipse] quality bibcode"
  • pm-ra : mu-ra*cos(dec) (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • pm-dec : mu-dec (expressed in the ICRS system in mas/yr)
  • [error ellipse] : error major axis and minor axis (in mas), orientation angle (in deg)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the proper motion reference
Proper motions mas/yr :
-8.029 10.734 [1.178 0.932 90] A 2018yCat.1345....0G
Syntax of radial velocity (or/and redshift) is : "value [error] (wavelength) quality bibcode"
  • value : radial velocity or/and redshift (Heliocentric frame) according to your Output Options
    (redshift may be not displayed if the data value is <0 and the database inside value is a radial velocity)
  • [error] : error of the corresponding value displayed before
  • (wavelength) : wavelength range of the measurement : Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam or  '∼'(unknown)
  • quality : flag of quality ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, ∼=unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the value's origin
Radial velocity / Redshift / cz :
V(km/s) 1256 [36] / z(spectroscopic) 0.00420 [0.00012] / cz 1259.1 [36.0]
   (Opt) E 2009ApJS..182..543A
Syntax of morphological type is : mtype quality bibcode
  • mtype : Hubble morphological class (spirals, ellipticals, etc)
  • quality : flag of quality (A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the morphological type reference
Morphological type:
E-E/S0 C 2014A&A...569A.124V
Syntax of angular size is : "maj-axis min-axis angle (wtype) quality bibcode"
  • maj-axis : major axis size (arc minutes)
  • min-axis : minor axis size (arc minutes)
  • angle : orientation angle (in degrees)
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the angular size (Rad, mm, IR, Opt, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • quality : flag of quality of the angular size values ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • bibcode : bibcode of the angular size reference
Angular size (arcmin):
9.12 7.94 ~ (Opt) D 2003A&A...412...45P
Syntax of fluxes (or magnitudes) is : "filter-name (System) flux-value [error] quality MultVarFlags bibcode"
  • filter-name : U, B, V, R, I, G, J, H, K, u, g, r, i, z
  • (System) : may be AB (default is Vega)
  • flux-value : value of flux or magnitude
  • [error] : error value
  • quality : flag of quality of the flux value ( A=best quality -> E=worst quality, {� } =unknown quality)
  • MultVarFlags : Mult is zero or one char (J) for joined photometry ; Var can be zero or two chars (V[0-4])
  • bibcode : bibcode of the flux reference
Fluxes (13) :
U 10.16 [0.04] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
B 9.59 [0.04] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
V 8.63 [0.04] D 2007ApJS..173..185G
G 15.7940 [0.0117] C 2018yCat.1345....0G
I 7.49 [~] D 2012A&A...538A..69L
J 6.719 [0.017] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
H 6.074 [0.018] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
K 5.812 [0.019] C 2006AJ....131.1163S
u (AB) 13.480 [0.003] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
g (AB) 11.563 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
r (AB) 10.703 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
i (AB) 10.272 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
z (AB) 9.917 [0.002] C 2009ApJS..182..543A
SIMBAD within arcmin
', {sourceSize:12, color:'#30a090'})); aladin.on('objectClicked', function(object) { var objName=object.data.MAIN_ID; aladin.showPopup(object.ra,object.dec,'',''+ objName+''); });" title="Show Simbad objects"> Overlay Simbad points in this preview
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The search radius has to be specified by the user. It is currently limited to a maximum of 30 arcsec. It depends mostly on the precision or quality of the coordinates (SIMBAD and VizieR catalogs), the resolution of the images from which the sources were extracted, source extent, and source crowding.
Suggestions are: crowded field: 0.5 to 1.5 arcsec, 3 arcsec otherwise; uncertain coordinates (SIMBAD quality E or coordinates without reference): 5 to 30 arsec (risky!).
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Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations.
notes:


Hierarchy : number of linked objects
whatever the membership probability is (see description here ) :

: 9
The count displayed here is the number of children objects.
The list obtained by clicking the button may be larger, as some children may be linked with different references or probability.

%This number is the number of distinct objets linked, by using this button, you will obtain all links (may be more than one) from that object to his children

: 2867
: 6440 Display criteria :

The link on the acronym of the identifiers give access to the information for this acronym in the dictionary of nomenclature.
Identifiers (122) :
An access of full data is available using the icon Vizier near the identifier of the catalogue

M 87 GALEX J123049.4+122328 NVSS B122817+124004 WMAP 165
1A 1228+12 GB6 J1230+1223 NVSS J123049+122323 XSS J12309+1223
2A 1228+125 GB6 B1228+1240 NVSS J123049+122321 X Vir X-1
3A 1228+125 87GB 122819.0+124029 PCCS1 857 G283.74+74.48 X Vir XR-1
ACSVCS 2 GIN 800 PCCS1 545 G283.76+74.47 9Y-MST J1230+1221
APG 152 1H 1226+128 PCCS2 143 G283.76+74.50 Z 70-139
BWE 1228+1240 H 1228+127 PKS J1230+1223 Z 1228.3+1240
3C 274.0 H 1227+12 PKS 1228+12 [BEC2010] HRS 183
3C 274 ICRF J123049.4+122328 PKS 1228+126 [CAB95] IRAS F12282+1240
4C 12.45 IERS B1228+126 PKS 1228+127 [CHM2007] HDC 720 J123049.42+1223279
3CR 274 IGR J12310+1221 QSO B1228+126 [CHM2007] LDC 904 J123049.42+1223279
CTA 54 IRAS F12282+1240 RFC J1230+1223 [DC78] UGC 7654
Cul 1228+126 IRAS 12282+1240 RGB J1230+123 [DGW65] 57
Cul 1228+12 1Jy 1228+12 RORF 1228+126 [DLB87] V12
DA 325 1Jy 1228+126 RX J1230.8+1223 [DML87] 747
DB 85 LEDA 41361 RX J1230.1+1223 [DSB94] 254
2E 2744 1M 1228+127 SDSS J123049.41+122328.1 [FWB89] Galaxy 270
2E 1228.2+1240 2MASX J12304942+1223279 SDSS J123047.55+122318.0 [GW2008] CoNFIG 139
1ES 1228+12.6 MCG+02-32-105 SIM 1228+06.0 [PT56] 24
2EUVE J1230+12.3 Mills 12+1A TeV J1230+123 [TH2002] 1
EUVE J1230+12.3 MRC 1228+126 TGSSADR J123049.6+122321 [VDD93] 163
EVCC 786 NAME M 87* 2U 1228+12 [VV2000c] J123049.5+122328
1FGL J1230.8+1223 NAME SMOKING GUN 3U 1228+12 [VV2003c] J123049.5+122328
2FGL J1230.8+1224 NAME Vir A 4U 1228+12 [VV2006c] J123049.5+122328
3FGL J1230.9+1224 NAME Virgo A UGC 7654 [VV2010c] J123049.5+122328
4FGL J1230.8+1223 NAME Virgo Galaxy UZC J123049.3+122327 [VV98c] J123049.5+122328
1FHL J1230.8+1224 NEWPS5 J1230+1223 VCC 1316 [WCO2009] J123049+122256
2FHL J1230.8+1225 NGC 4486 VER J1230+123
3FHL J1230.8+1223 NGVS J123049.42+122328.0 VPC 771 Gaia DR2 3907709439453756032
FIRST J123049.3+122323 NRAO 401 VSOP J1230+1223
FL8Y J1230.8+1223 NRL 8 WMAP J1230+1223

References (7221 between 1850 and 2024) (Total 7221)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Collections of Measurements


velocities : 21    distance : 8    PM : 2   

   

Observing logs


herschel : 5    ISO : 9    IUE : 9    XMM : 2   

   


External archives :

Archive data at HEASARC - High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

Data at NED - NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database : M 87

Link by name to the catalogue in VizieR :

APG 152 BWE 1228+1240 3C 274.0 3C 274 4C 12.45
3CR 274 2E 2744 EUVE J1230+12.3 FIRST J123049.3+122323 GALEX J123049.4+122328
IERS B1228+126 IRAS F12282+1240 IRAS 12282+1240 2MASX J12304942+1223279 NGC 4486
NVSS B122817+124004 NVSS J123049+122323 NVSS J123049+122321 PKS J1230+1223 PKS 1228+12
PKS 1228+126 PKS 1228+127 SDSS J123049.41+122328.1 SDSS J123047.55+122318.0 UGC 7654
VSOP J1230+1223 WMAP J1230+1223 [DML87] 747 Gaia DR2 3907709439453756032

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