2023A&A...671A...3J


Query : 2023A&A...671A...3J

2023A&A...671A...3J - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 671A, 3 (2023/3-1)

VERTICO III. The Kennicutt-Schmidt relation in Virgo cluster galaxies.

JIMENEZ-DONAIRE M.J., BROWN T., WILSON C.D., ROBERTS I.D., ZABEL N., ELLISON S.L., THORP M., VILLANUEVA V., CHOWN R., BISARIA D., BOLATTO A.D., BOSELLI A., CATINELLA B., CHUNG A., CORTESE L., DAVIS T.A., LAGOS C.D.P., LEE B., PARKER L.C., SPEKKENS K., STEVENS A.R.H. and SUN J.

Abstract (from CDS):

Aims. In this Virgo Environment Traced in CO (VERTICO) science paper, we aim to study how the star formation process depends on the galactic environment and gravitational interactions in the context of galaxy evolution. We explore the scaling relation between the star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR) and the molecular gas surface density (Σmol), also known as the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, in a subsample of Virgo cluster spiral galaxies.
Methods. We used new Atacama Compact Array and Total Power (ACA+TP) observations from the VERTICO-Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program at 720 pc resolution to resolve the molecular gas content, as traced by the 12CO (2 - 1) transition, across the disks of 37 spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. In combination with archival UV and IR observations used to determine the star formation rate (SFR), we estimated the parameters of the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation for the entire ensemble of galaxies, and within individual galaxies.
Results. We find the KS slope for the entire population to be N = 0.97 ± 0.07, with a characteristic molecular gas depletion time of 1.86 Gyr for our full sample, which is in agreement with previous work in isolated, nearby star-forming galaxies. In individual galaxies, we find that the KS slope ranges between 0.69 and 1.40, and that typical star formation efficiencies of molecular gas can vary from galaxy to galaxy by a factor of ∼4. These galaxy-to-galaxy variations account for ∼0.20 dex in scatter in the ensemble KS relation, which is characterized by a 0.42 dex scatter. In addition, we find that the HI-deficient galaxies in the Virgo cluster show a steeper resolved KS relation and lower molecular gas efficiencies than HI-normal cluster galaxies.
Conclusions. While the molecular gas content in galaxies residing in the Virgo cluster appears - to first order - to behave similarly to that in isolated galaxies, our VERTICO sample of galaxies shows that cluster environments play a key role in regulating star formation. The environmental mechanisms affecting the HI galaxy content also have a direct impact on the star formation efficiency of molecular gas in cluster galaxies, leading to longer depletion times in HI-deficient members.

Abstract Copyright: © The Authors 2023

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: ISM - galaxies: star formation - galaxies: general

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/671/A3): table1.dat list.dat fits/*>

Status at CDS : Tables of objects will be appraised for possible ingestion in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 47

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Number of rows : 47
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 29.4 -35 27 08           ~ 1831 0
2 NGC 2146 SBG 06 18 37.710 +78 21 25.27 11.67 11.38 10.59     ~ 723 2
3 NGC 2798 GiP 09 17 22.9 +42 00 00 13.03 13.04 12.32     ~ 325 3
4 M 82 AGN 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5869 6
5 NGC 3077 GiP 10 03 19.0965510921 +68 44 01.556166166 11.23 10.85 10.14 9.74   ~ 772 0
6 NGC 4064 GiG 12 04 11.191 +18 26 36.42   12.5       ~ 174 0
7 NGC 4189 GiG 12 13 47.2380839784 +13 25 29.445094632   12.51 11.74     ~ 281 1
8 M 99 H2G 12 18 49.625 +14 24 59.36 10.45 10.44 9.87     ~ 922 2
9 NGC 4293 LIN 12 21 12.891 +18 22 56.64   11.6       ~ 292 2
10 NGC 4294 GiP 12 21 17.787 +11 30 39.99   12.6       ~ 302 0
11 NGC 4298 GiP 12 21 32.7578814360 +14 36 22.048690716   12.04 11.34     ~ 328 1
12 NGC 4299 GiP 12 21 40.548 +11 29 59.74   12.8       ~ 255 0
13 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9299993592 +15 49 20.296257960 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1847 2
14 NGC 4351 GiG 12 24 01.560 +12 12 18.09   13.5       ~ 224 0
15 NGC 4380 BLL 12 25 22.178 +10 01 00.14   13.4       ~ 262 0
16 NGC 4383 AGN 12 25 25.5 +16 28 12 12.41 12.67 12.12     ~ 255 1
17 NGC 4394 GiP 12 25 55.6366312872 +18 12 50.110707636   11.9       ~ 363 0
18 NGC 4405 H2G 12 26 07.1372151528 +16 10 51.581577504   13.03       ~ 158 1
19 NAME Virgo Cluster ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24           ~ 6660 0
20 NGC 4419 LIN 12 26 56.4505296720 +15 02 50.688833388 12.42 12.08 11.16     ~ 403 2
21 NGC 4424 H2G 12 27 11.5741235616 +09 25 14.330453700   13.1       ~ 360 0
22 NGC 4450 LIN 12 28 29.5910654016 +17 05 05.976112020   10.90 10.08     ~ 565 2
23 IC 3392 GiG 12 28 43.2764753520 +14 59 57.963302232   13.3       ~ 169 0
24 NGC 4457 LIN 12 28 59.0252479200 +03 34 14.215556928   11.9       ~ 311 0
25 M 88 Sy2 12 31 59.1525062448 +14 25 13.148971824   14.33 13.18     ~ 808 1
26 NGC 4532 GiP 12 34 19.329 +06 28 03.73   12.3       ~ 287 2
27 NGC 4535 H2G 12 34 20.3443516704 +08 11 51.908488116   11.1       ~ 618 0
28 NGC 4536 GiP 12 34 27.1 +02 11 18 11.14 11.16 10.55 17.393   ~ 854 3
29 M 91 LIN 12 35 26.4446761320 +14 29 46.760333748   14.63 13.57     ~ 595 0
30 NGC 4561 GiG 12 36 08.137 +19 19 21.32   12.7       ~ 195 0
31 NGC 4567 GiP 12 36 32.6979947472 +11 15 28.716262668 12.25 12.06 11.31     ~ 325 2
32 NGC 4568 GiP 12 36 34.292 +11 14 19.07   12.11 11.19     ~ 382 2
33 M 90 Sy2 12 36 49.8009839880 +13 09 46.523813040 10.56 10.26 9.54     ~ 899 1
34 M 58 Sy2 12 37 43.5 +11 49 06 10.80 10.48 9.66     ~ 1081 2
35 NGC 4580 LIN 12 37 48.3754581432 +05 22 06.630315636   13.1       ~ 221 0
36 NGC 4606 GiP 12 40 57.557 +11 54 43.87   12.7       ~ 162 0
37 NGC 4639 GiP 12 42 52.3785000336 +13 15 26.706153600   13.62 12.72     ~ 613 0
38 NGC 4651 LIN 12 43 42.6376070448 +16 23 36.002649300   11.30 10.92 10.42 9.84 ~ 515 0
39 NGC 4654 GiP 12 43 56.638 +13 07 34.86   11.8       ~ 569 1
40 NGC 4694 AGN 12 48 15.091 +10 59 01.05   13.93 13.36     ~ 277 0
41 NGC 4698 Sy2 12 48 22.9082830584 +08 29 14.667552276   13.24 12.27     ~ 485 0
42 NGC 4713 GiG 12 49 57.8802780576 +05 18 40.933127196   12.3       ~ 305 0
43 NGC 4772 LIN 12 53 29.1636448512 +02 10 06.146331708 12.29 11.96 11.04     ~ 254 1
44 NGC 4808 GiG 12 55 48.940 +04 18 14.74   12.5       ~ 230 0
45 ACO 1656 ClG 12 59 44.40 +27 54 44.9           ~ 4816 2
46 NGC 5713 GiP 14 40 11.528 -00 17 21.16 11.88 11.84 11.20     ~ 398 2
47 ACO 3627 ClG 16 14 22.5 -60 52 07           ~ 297 2

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