2023A&A...671A..20B


Query : 2023A&A...671A..20B

2023A&A...671A..20B - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 671A, 20 (2023/3-1)

Gaia-ESO survey: Massive stars in the Carina Nebula I. A new census of OB stars.

BERLANAS S.R., MAIZ APELLANIZ J., HERRERO A., MAHY L., BLOMME R., NEGUERUELA I., DORDA R., COMERON F., GOSSET E., PANTALEONI GONZALEZ M., MOLINA LERA J.A., SOTA A., FURST T., ALFARO E.J., BERGEMANN M., CARRARO G., DREW J.E., MORBIDELLI L. and VINK J.S.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. The Carina Nebula is one of the major massive star-forming regions in the Galaxy. Its relatively nearby distance (2.35 kpc) makes it an ideal laboratory for the study of massive star formation, structure, and evolution, both for individual stars and stellar systems. Thanks to the high-quality spectra provided by the Gaia-ESO survey and the LiLiMaRlin library, as well as Gaia EDR3 astrometry, a detailed and homogeneous spectroscopic characterization of its massive stellar content can be carried out.
Aims. Our main objective is to spectroscopically characterize all massive members of the Carina Nebula in the Gaia-ESO survey footprint to provide an updated census of massive stars in the region and an updated estimate of the binary fraction of O stars.
Methods. We performed accurate spectral classification using an interactive code that compares spectra with spectral libraries of OB standard stars, as well as line-based classic methods. We calculated membership using our own algorithm based on Gaia EDR3 astrometry. To check the correlation between the spectroscopic n-qualifier and the rotational velocity, we used a semi-automated tool for the line-broadening characterization of OB stars based on a combined Fourier transform and goodness-of-fit methodology.
Results. The Gaia-ESO survey sample of massive OB stars in the Carina Nebula consists of 234 stars. The addition of brighter sources from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey and additional sources from the literature allows us to create the most complete census of massive OB stars so far in the region. It contains a total of 316 stars, with 18 of them in the background and 4 in the foreground. Of the 294 stellar systems in Car OB1, 74 are of O type, 214 are of nonsupergiant B type, and 6 are of WR or nonO supergiant (II to Ia) spectral class. We identify 20 spectroscopic binary systems with an O-star primary, of which 6 are reported for the first time, and another 18 with a B-star primary, of which 13 are new detections. The average observed double-lined binary fraction of O-type stars in the surveyed region is 0.35, which represents a lower limit. We find a good correlation between the spectroscopic n-qualifier and the projected rotational velocity of the stars. The fraction of candidate runaways among the stars with and without the n-qualifier is 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, although nonresolved double-lined binaries could be contaminating the sample of fast rotators.

Abstract Copyright: © The Authors 2023

Journal keyword(s): stars: massive - stars: early-type - stars: rotation - proper motions - binaries: spectroscopic - open clusters and associations: individual: Carina Nebula

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/671/A20): tablea1.dat tablea2.dat>

Status at CDS : Tables of objects will be appraised for possible ingestion in SIMBAD.

Simbad objects: 97

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Number of rows : 97
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 RMC 136 Cl* 05 38 42.396 -69 06 03.36   5.81 5.40     ~ 2019 2
2 IC 2581 OpC 10 27 28.1 -57 37 34   4.79 4.3     ~ 134 0
3 Cl Ruprecht 90 OpC 10 31 00 -58 27.0           ~ 21 0
4 Cl Loden 153 OpC 10 34 41 -58 07.8           ~ 27 1
5 NGC 3293 OpC 10 35 52.8 -58 13 52           ~ 312 0
6 NGC 3324 OpC 10 37 21.8 -58 36 54           ~ 129 1
7 Ass Car OB 1 As* 10 38 -59.0           ~ 162 0
8 HD 92740 WR* 10 41 17.5158425712 -59 40 36.895992960 5.68 6.50 6.42 7.38   WN7h+O9III-V 412 0
9 HD 92809 WR* 10 41 38.3243333544 -58 46 18.723223308 8.95 9.28 9.03 9.60   WC6 156 0
10 CD-59 3228 * 10 41 54.2555743848 -59 55 45.025684392   10.50 10.40 10.60   B2/5: 4 0
11 HD 305452 * 10 42 02.3014510752 -60 08 38.600533356 8.87 9.53 9.47 9.85   B2III 30 0
12 HD 305439B * 10 42 10.2520916376 -59 57 57.380544648 10.23     10.40   ~ 7 0
13 HD 305439 s*b 10 42 10.31016 -59 58 00.1272           B0Ia 9 0
14 HD 305439A * 10 42 10.3365026880 -59 58 01.026885144 9.08 10.04 9.72 9.77   ~ 17 0
15 Cl Bochum 10 OpC 10 42 14.2 -59 08 44   6.40 6.2     ~ 82 0
16 CPD-59 2504 * 10 42 46.1781725688 -60 00 57.644516916   11.21 11.20 10.98 10.726 B2/5 13 0
17 HD 303313 * 10 42 50.1711104904 -59 25 31.153268928 9.88 10.46 10.16 10.36   B2V+B2V 22 0
18 HD 305535 * 10 42 54.6435823128 -59 58 19.683122592   9.43 9.39     B2.5V 26 0
19 NAME Carina Molecular Cloud Complex MoC 10 43 10 -59 38.2           ~ 81 0
20 V* DW Car SB* 10 43 10.0815693384 -60 02 11.745452652 9.02 9.83 9.85 10.03 9.59 B1III 73 0
21 Cl* Trumpler 14 MJ 33 * 10 43 13.8756089184 -59 54 58.422387960   13.95 13.44     ~ 3 0
22 Cl* Trumpler 14 MJ 42 * 10 43 18.9722776920 -59 46 56.891512884 10.700 11.322 11.225   11.013 ~ 4 0
23 Cl* Trumpler 14 MJ 43 HS? 10 43 19.4578150728 -59 44 48.769864476 13.479 14.474 14.679   14.894 ~ 6 0
24 GSC 08626-02103 * 10 43 21.8261929896 -59 24 22.707535104 12.29 12.75 12.42 12.40   O2-3.5 6 0
25 V* V724 Car bC* 10 43 27.3946952088 -60 05 54.787692732 8.13 9.03 9.00 9.59 8.90 O9V+B2V 34 0
26 V* V725 Car EB* 10 43 30.8371202256 -59 29 23.879203368 9.66 10.29 10.08 10.06   O9.7IV 42 0
27 CD-58 3524 s*b 10 43 33.3506407920 -59 35 11.148512172 10.084 10.583 10.074 10.09 9.218 B1Ia 35 0
28 Cl Trumpler 14 43 Y*? 10 43 38.6441929656 -59 34 44.438475468 12.107 12.589 12.170 12.12 11.43 B 15 1
29 CPD-59 2535 SB* 10 43 40.8133070880 -60 10 03.230226984           B2V 7 0
30 CPD-59 2539 * 10 43 46.7923062528 -60 08 26.532145644   11.84 11.66     ~ 4 0
31 CPD-59 2541 * 10 43 48.8170025088 -60 00 36.651905856 11.19 11.77 11.57     ~ 7 0
32 HD 93131 WR* 10 43 52.2579213120 -60 07 04.019676456 5.52 6.43 6.48 7.46   WN6ha-w 298 0
33 Cl Trumpler 14 OpC 10 43 56.6 -59 33 11   5.70 5.5     ~ 509 0
34 HD 93129A SB* 10 43 57.4587319296 -59 32 51.394897284 6.46 7.478 7.310 7.84   O2If* 169 0
35 Cl Trumpler 14 36 Y*? 10 43 58.9931809229 -59 33 19.576601946 11.644 12.251 11.986 12.11 11.41 ~ 11 0
36 Cl Collinder 228 OpC 10 44 00 -60 05.2           ~ 207 0
37 CPD-59 2554 * 10 44 00.4276136736 -60 05 59.995921668 7.95 8.73 8.76     O9.5IV 25 0
38 Cl* Trumpler 14 Y 519 s*b 10 44 03.8367547152 -59 34 34.504765464 13.020 13.398 13.072   12.534 BI 12 0
39 Cl Trumpler 14 29 Y*O 10 44 05.0728510560 -59 33 41.334325956 12.138 12.25 11.71 11.80 11.019 B1.5V 28 0
40 HD 305520 * 10 44 05.8557244896 -59 59 41.562158352 8.16 8.89 8.68 9.41   B1Ia 34 0
41 Cl Trumpler 16 128 * 10 44 08.6659711488 -59 33 48.967126092 13.044 13.407 13.018   12.352 ~ 7 1
42 Cl Trumpler 16 129 * 10 44 12.4154913672 -59 34 09.270598836 11.594 11.937 11.605 11.51 11.00 ~ 7 1
43 CPD-58 2634 * 10 44 16.7728360920 -59 20 09.577295448   10.75 10.56     B3/6 5 0
44 Cl Trumpler 16 59 * 10 44 18.2958564144 -59 42 29.503616148 12.037 12.619 12.416   12.019 B2: 11 0
45 HD 93206 SB* 10 44 22.9085235888 -59 59 35.970489960 5.53 6.37 6.24 7.42   O9.7Ibn 215 0
46 CPD-58 2640 Y*? 10 44 24.6222058080 -59 30 36.099146304 10.459 11.104 10.895 10.88 10.522 B1V+B2V 26 0
47 HD 305523 * 10 44 29.4771423744 -59 57 18.094514724 7.82 8.64 8.50 9.25   O9II-III 71 0
48 CPD-58 2649A * 10 44 30.3659799480 -59 37 26.442866856           ~ 2 0
49 CPD-59 2583 Y*O 10 44 32.8936828008 -59 40 25.916315016 10.369 11.057 10.882   10.522 B1V 32 0
50 CPD-59 2591 * 10 44 36.7048192536 -59 47 29.696644860 10.726 11.312 10.851   9.975 O8.5V+B0.5:V: 45 0
51 CD-59 3297 * 10 44 36.7776917976 -59 54 24.813636300 10.03 10.24 9.48 9.64 8.985 B1Ib 34 0
52 LSWR 4 WR* 10 44 38.0518597224 -58 48 28.806098832   14.95 13.70 13.39   WC6+OB 39 0
53 Cl Collinder 232 OpC 10 44 39.00 -59 33 36.0           ~ 67 0
54 Cl Trumpler 15 OpC 10 44 42.5 -59 22 08           ~ 215 0
55 CPD-58 2657 * 10 44 42.7572866304 -59 21 50.949886644 10.37 10.78 10.43 10.53   B2.5Vn 16 0
56 Cl* Trumpler 14 MJ 405 * 10 44 45.5251489152 -59 52 53.611028364   13.53 12.96     ~ 3 0
57 V* RT Car s*r 10 44 47.1481707768 -59 24 48.122847360   10.62 8.551     M2+Iab 79 0
58 V* V572 Car SB* 10 44 47.3048862456 -59 43 53.277923784 8.17 8.96 8.81 9.45   O7.5V(n)z+B0V(n) 172 1
59 HD 305534 * 10 44 47.5135200936 -59 57 58.934234628 9.05 9.79 9.69 9.94   B0V+B0V 31 0
60 Cl* Trumpler 14 MJ 414 * 10 44 48.0437007072 -59 54 29.577195720   13.05 12.27     ~ 3 0
61 HD 93281 s?r 10 44 57.3440920728 -59 56 06.388002456 10.38 9.50 7.76     M2I: 36 0
62 CPD-59 2618 Y*O 10 44 59.9009208768 -59 43 14.820372732 11.462 12.106 11.794   11.232 B1.5Vpe 21 0
63 Cl Trumpler 16 OpC 10 45 00.7 -59 42 00           ~ 484 0
64 NGC 3372 HII 10 45 02.23 -59 41 59.8           ~ 1014 2
65 NAME eta Car Cluster Cl* 10 45 03.0 -59 41 04           ~ 28 0
66 * eta Car Em* 10 45 03.545808 -59 41 03.95124 6.37 7.03 6.48 6.123 4.41 LBV 2442 0
67 CPD-59 2625 * 10 45 05.8757742144 -59 44 18.801774780 11.092 11.698 11.506   11.115 B2V 31 0
68 Cl Trumpler 16 69 * 10 45 07.8845522568 -59 41 34.007551188 13.089 13.369 12.962 12.88 12.18 B3 16 0
69 CPD-59 2628 SB* 10 45 08.2244134080 -59 40 49.413975060 8.791 9.571 9.460 9.87 9.219 O9.5V(n)+B0.5V(n) 82 0
70 HD 93343 * 10 45 12.2210285688 -59 45 00.441008892 9.01 9.76 9.558 9.17 8.76 O8Vz 86 0
71 V* V731 Car SB* 10 45 12.7214663496 -59 44 46.149112428 8.739 9.472 9.229 9.65 8.699 O8V(n)+O9.5V 93 0
72 CPD-59 2636 SB* 10 45 12.8686809888 -59 44 19.205057544 8.913 9.559 9.218   8.535 O8V+O8V 75 0
73 Cl* Trumpler 14 MJ 525 * 10 45 15.8844974160 -59 29 56.329447380 11.930 12.415 12.057   11.467 B 8 0
74 CD-59 3310 SB* 10 45 16.5181708560 -59 43 37.050828744 8.842 9.542 9.219 9.65 8.585 O6V((fc)) 91 0
75 HD 93342 * 10 45 17.5677901848 -59 23 37.473711036 9.23 9.85 9.26 9.49 8.865 B1Ia 52 0
76 [HSB2012] 3805 * 10 45 20.1271040784 -59 50 10.414738284 17.629 17.552 16.356   14.283 ~ 3 0
77 HD 303300 Y*? 10 45 20.4487591512 -59 17 06.166195728 9.49 10.14 9.74 9.97   B1V 26 0
78 Cl* Trumpler 14 Y 192 * 10 45 22.5810814296 -59 42 36.716740488 11.515 12.079 11.790   11.270 ~ 11 0
79 [HSB2012] 3994 s*b 10 45 26.4721568304 -59 46 18.753150468 17.338 17.172 16.132   14.205 BI 8 0
80 [HSB2012] 4044 s*b 10 45 28.7484918216 -59 30 03.699948168 14.463 14.568 13.658   12.139 BI 7 0
81 V* V662 Car EB* 10 45 36.3215655240 -59 48 23.261257368 12.74 12.91 12.05 12.10   O5Vz+B0:V 49 0
82 [S87b] IRS 41 * 10 45 36.6094327920 -59 44 10.877966448 14.463 14.694 13.620 13.29 11.57 O9V 15 0
83 [S87b] IRS 42 * 10 45 36.7440193536 -59 47 01.899507876 16.925 16.729 15.084   12.197 O 14 0
84 Cl* Trumpler 16 MJ 599 * 10 45 38.0687819952 -59 44 09.365967744 13.346 13.820 13.048 12.81 11.46 B 10 0
85 HD 93403 SB* 10 45 44.1198371784 -59 24 28.153300860 6.72 8.46 8.27 8.35   O5.5III(fc)var 194 1
86 [HSB2012] 4383 * 10 45 45.9520530840 -59 49 07.517422956 16.685 16.587 15.514   13.730 ~ 3 0
87 V* BO Car s*r 10 45 50.6576914056 -59 29 19.321115064 10.98 9.24 7.45 7.64   M4Ib 66 0
88 CPD-59 2661 Y*O 10 45 53.7131378088 -59 57 03.829825404 10.95 11.55 11.20 11.21   O9.5V 40 1
89 Cl* Trumpler 16 MJ 658 * 10 46 04.7845581120 -59 49 21.667097280   12.16 11.72     ~ 5 0
90 HD 93501 * 10 46 22.0412952048 -60 01 18.910042176 8.51 9.16 9.0     B0V 32 0
91 HD 305530 * 10 47 14.9657345736 -60 02 42.974683080   10       A 2 0
92 Cl Bochum 11 OpC 10 47 15.2 -60 05 51           ~ 85 0
93 [KPR2005] 62 OpC 10 50 53 -60 06.0           ~ 14 0
94 Cl Westerlund 1 Cl* 16 47 02.4 -45 51 07           ~ 569 0
95 NAME Arches Cluster Cl* 17 45 50.5 -28 49 28           ~ 739 0
96 Ass Cyg OB 2 As* 20 33.2 +41 19           ~ 945 0
97 NAME Carina Region reg ~ ~           ~ 186 0

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