2023A&A...671A..59I


Query : 2023A&A...671A..59I

2023A&A...671A..59I - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 671A, 59 (2023/3-1)

Central molecular zones in galaxies: Multitransition survey of dense gas tracers HCN, HNC, and HCO+.

ISRAEL F.P.

Abstract (from CDS):

New measurements of 46 nearby galaxy centers in up to three transitions of HCN, HNC, and HCO+ combined with literature surveys establish a database of 130 galaxies measured in both HCN and HCO+, and 94 galaxies in HNC as well, allowing a systematic exploration of the relations between normalized luminosities and line ratios. The almost linear relations between luminosities are predominantly caused by distance effects and do not reflect galaxy physical properties. Individual galaxies show significant dispersion in both their luminosity and line ratio, which will be analyzed in more detail in a later paper. Very few line ratios correlate either with luminosities or with other line ratios. Only the normalized transition ladders of HCN and HCO+ and the J = 1 - 0 12CO/13CO isotopologue ratio are positively correlated with CO and far infrared (FIR) luminosity. On average, HCN and HCO+ have very similar intensities and trace the same gas. In galaxies dominated by an active nucleus, HCO+ intensities appear to be depressed relative to HCN intensities. Only a small fraction of CO emission is associated with gas emitting in HCN and HCO+, yet a significant fraction of even that gas appears to be translucent molecular gas. In the observed galaxy centers, the HCN/CO line intensity ratio is not a proxy for the dense gas fraction, and the FIR/HCN and FIR/CO ratios are not proxies for the star formation efficiency. A proper understandig of star formation requires a more appropriate determination of gas mass than provided by the intensities of individual HCN or CO transitions. The observed molecular line emission is fully consistent with UV-photon heating boosted by significant mechanical heating. The molecular gas sampled by HCN and HCO+ has low kinetic temperatures Tkin = 10 - 50 K, low densities nH = 104 - 105 cm–3, and low optical depths in the ground-state lines. Most of the gas sampled by CO has densities lower by one to two orders of magnitude. For a mechanical heating fraction of 0.5, a modest energy input of only G = 300 G0 is required.

Abstract Copyright: © The Authors 2023

Journal keyword(s): ISM: molecules - galaxies: ISM - galaxies: nuclei - galaxies: starburst - submillimeter: ISM - submillimeter: galaxies

Simbad objects: 51

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Number of rows : 51
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 NGC 253 SyG 00 47 33.134 -25 17 19.68   8.03   6.94 8.1 ~ 3344 2
2 NGC 470 GiP 01 19 44.8526263032 +03 24 36.027176544 12.63 12.53 11.78     ~ 275 1
3 NGC 520 AG? 01 24 34.90 +03 47 29.4 12.41 12.24 11.42     ~ 514 3
4 NGC 660 Sy2 01 43 02.350 +13 38 44.45   12.02 11.16     ~ 557 2
5 NGC 891 H2G 02 22 32.907 +42 20 53.95 11.08 10.81 9.93 7.86   ~ 1671 2
6 NGC 972 rG 02 34 13.3574389680 +29 18 40.604917356   12.1 13.63     ~ 171 2
7 NGC 1055 GiP 02 41 45.233 +00 26 35.45 11.59 11.40 10.59 10.5 10.7 ~ 283 2
8 UGCA 39 GiG 02 41 55.092 +59 36 14.73   16       ~ 350 1
9 M 77 Sy2 02 42 40.7091669408 -00 00 47.859690204 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4610 2
10 NGC 1084 GiG 02 45 59.926 -07 34 43.10 11.22 11.59 10.73 10.55 11.1 ~ 368 2
11 NGC 1097 LIN 02 46 19.059 -30 16 29.68 10.46 9.97 9.48 8.72 9.8 ~ 1344 3
12 NGC 1365 Sy1 03 33 36.458 -36 08 26.37 10.48 10.08 9.63 8.79 9.7 ~ 1808 2
13 IC 342 SBG 03 46 48.514 +68 05 45.98   10.5       ~ 1518 1
14 NGC 1614 Sy1 04 34 00.027 -08 34 44.57   14.66 13.99     ~ 669 0
15 NGC 1808 Sy2 05 07 42.343 -37 30 46.98 11.05 10.80 9.94 9.36 10.2 ~ 723 3
16 NGC 2146 SBG 06 18 37.710 +78 21 25.27 11.67 11.38 10.59     ~ 723 2
17 NGC 2559 GiG 08 17 06.074 -27 27 20.95   11.71   10.10 10.7 ~ 75 0
18 NGC 2623 LIN 08 38 24.016 +25 45 16.29 14.10 13.99 13.36     ~ 501 1
19 NGC 2905 H2G 09 32 10.111 +21 30 02.99 10.44 9.75 9.07 8.68   ~ 1119 3
20 UGC 5101 Sy2 09 35 51.6045544584 +61 21 11.589382368   15.20 15.50     ~ 575 4
21 M 82 AGN 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5869 6
22 NGC 3079 Sy2 10 01 57.8789863992 +55 40 47.449758324 11.57 11.54 10.86     ~ 1393 3
23 NGC 3310 AGN 10 38 45.85707 +53 30 11.8940   12.45 12.15     ~ 774 1
24 M 66 GiP 11 20 15.0 +12 59 29 9.85 9.65 8.92     ~ 1387 4
25 NGC 3628 GiP 11 20 17.018 +13 35 22.16   10.42 9.48 9.22   ~ 829 3
26 NGC 3690 IG 11 28 31.0 +58 33 41   13.19 12.86     ~ 978 4
27 NGC 4030 GiP 12 00 23.6102390784 -01 06 00.197099136   11.42   10.3 10.4 ~ 340 1
28 NGC 4038 EmG 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1334 1
29 NGC 4102 Sy2 12 06 23.0 +52 42 40   11.8       ~ 424 1
30 M 106 Sy2 12 18 57.620 +47 18 13.39   9.14 8.41 8.11   ~ 2365 3
31 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9299993592 +15 49 20.296257960 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1847 2
32 NGC 4414 GiG 12 26 27.1276893168 +31 13 24.626206488 11.12 10.96 10.12     ~ 567 2
33 NGC 4527 GiP 12 34 08.4 +02 39 15   12.4       ~ 534 2
34 M 90 Sy2 12 36 49.8009839880 +13 09 46.523813040 10.56 10.26 9.54     ~ 899 1
35 NGC 4666 EmG 12 45 08.676 -00 27 42.88   11.7   11.5 10.7 ~ 389 1
36 M 64 SyG 12 56 43.696 +21 40 57.57   9.36 8.52     ~ 943 2
37 NGC 4945 Sy2 13 05 27.279 -49 28 04.44   9.31 14.40 7.55   ~ 1478 2
38 NGC 5033 Sy2 13 13 27.535 +36 35 37.14   11.01 12.03 9.73   ~ 869 3
39 M 63 LIN 13 15 49.2741893928 +42 01 45.728076108   9.34 8.59 8.35   ~ 1224 2
40 M 51 Sy2 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 4333 4
41 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.91920 -29 51 56.7400 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2580 2
42 NAME Circinus Galaxy Sy2 14 13 09.906 -65 20 20.47   10.89 9.84 10.6 10.0 ~ 1222 2
43 NGC 5775 GiP 14 53 57.653 +03 32 40.10   13.0 11.34     ~ 435 2
44 IC 4553 SyG 15 34 57.22396 +23 30 11.6084   14.76 13.88     ~ 2963 4
45 NGC 6240 Sy2 16 52 58.9 +02 24 03   14.31 13.37     ~ 1640 2
46 NGC 6701 AG? 18 43 12.429 +60 39 12.13   12.9       ~ 134 1
47 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2532 2
48 NGC 6951 Sy2 20 37 14.1228088488 +66 06 20.049916392   11.64 10.65     ~ 529 2
49 NGC 7469 Sy1 23 03 15.6 +08 52 26 12.60 13.00 12.34     ~ 2101 3
50 NGC 7714 GiP 23 36 14.1257730600 +02 09 18.197422668   14.91 14.36     ~ 765 1
51 NGC 7771 GiG 23 51 24.880 +20 06 42.57 13.42 13.08 12.25     ~ 339 4

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