Query : 2023A&A...671A..62Q

2023A&A...671A..62Q - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 671A, 62 (2023/3-1)

Merging binary black holes formed through double-core evolution.

QIN Y., HU R.-C., MEYNET G., WANG Y.Z., ZHU J.-P., SONG H.F., SHU X.W. and WU S.C.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. To date, various formation channels of merging events have been heavily explored with the detection of nearly 100 double black hole (BH) merger events reported by the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA (LVK) Collaboration. In this paper, we systematically investigate an alternative formation scenario: binary BHs (BBHs) formed through double helium stars (hereafter, “double-core evolution channel”). In this scenario, two helium stars (He-rich stars) could be the outcome of the classical isolated binary evolution scenario with and without the common envelope (CE) phase (i.e., CE channel and stable mass transfer channel) or, alternatively, of massive close binaries evolving chemically homogeneously (i.e., CHE channel).
Aims. We study the properties (i.e., the chirp masses and the effective spins) of BBHs formed through the double-core evolution and investigate the impact of different efficiencies of angular momentum transport within massive He-rich stars on double-core evolution.
Methods. We performed detailed stellar structure and binary evolution calculations that take into account internal rotation and mass loss of He-rich stars as well as tidal interactions in binaries. We systematically studied the parameter space of initial binary He-rich stars, including the initial mass and metallicity of He-rich stars as well as initial orbital periods. Apart from direct core collapse with mass and angular momentum conserved, we also follow the framework in Batta & Ramirez-Ruiz (2019, ArXiv e-prints [arXiv:1904.04835]) to estimate the mass and spin of the resulting BHs.
Results. We show that the radii of massive He-rich stars decrease as a function of time, which comes mainly from mass loss and mixing in high metallicity and from mixing in low metallicity. For double He-rich stars with equal masses in binaries, we find that tides start to be at work on the zero age helium main sequence (i.e., the time when a He-rich star starts to burn helium in the core, which is analogous to zero age main sequence for core hydrogen burning) for initial orbital periods not longer than 1.0 day, depending on the initial metallicities. In addition to the stellar mass-loss rate and tidal interactions in binaries, we find that the role of the angular momentum transport efficiency in determining the resulting BH spins becomes stronger when considering BH progenitors originated from a higher metal-metallicity environment. We highlight that the double-core evolution scenario does not always produce fast-spinning BBHs and compare the properties of the BBHs reported from the LVK with our modeling.
Conclusions. After detailed binary calculations of double-core evolution, we have confirmed that the spin of the BH is not only determined by the interplay of the binary's different initial conditions (metallicity, mass, and orbital period) but is also dependent on the angular momentum transport efficiency within its progenitor. We predict that with the sensitivity improvements to the LVK's next observing run (O4), the sample of merging BBHs will contain more sources with positive but moderate (even high) χeff and part of the events will likely show to have been formed through the double-core evolution channel.

Abstract Copyright: © The Authors 2023

Journal keyword(s): gravitational waves - binaries: general - stars: Wolf-Rayet - stars: black holes - stars: evolution - binaries: close

Simbad objects: 11

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Number of rows : 11
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
ICRS (J2000)
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
1 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 17478 0
2 2MASS J05380840-6909190 SB* 05 38 08.4066684408 -69 09 18.975749724   15.47 15.26     O7V(n)((f)) 19 0
3 GrW 190519 153544 GWE ~ ~           ~ 37 0
4 GrW 190620 030421 GWE ~ ~           ~ 34 0
5 GrW 190805 GWE ~ ~           ~ 4 0
6 GrW 150914 GWE ~ ~           ~ 594 1
7 GrW 170729 GWE ~ ~           ~ 114 0
8 GrW 190517 055101 GWE ~ ~           ~ 43 0
9 GrW 190521 GWE ~ ~           ~ 289 0
10 GrW 190706 222641 GWE ~ ~           ~ 36 0
11 GrW 190403 051519 GWE ~ ~           ~ 22 0

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