Query : 2023A&A...671A.107N

2023A&A...671A.107N - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 671A, 107 (2023/3-1)

Importance of source structure on complex organics emission III. Effect of disks around massive protostars.


Abstract (from CDS):

Context. The hot molecular core phase of massive star formation shows emission from complex organic molecules. However, these species are only detected toward a fraction of high-mass protostars. In particular, there is a spread of ∼2 orders of magnitude in methanol emission intensity from high-mass protostars.
Aims. The goal of this work is to answer the question of whether high-mass disks can explain the lack of methanol emission from some massive protostellar systems.
Methods. We considered an envelope-only and an envelope-plus-disk model and used the code RADMC-3D to calculate the methanol emission. High and low millimeter (mm) opacity dust (representing large and small dust distributions) were considered for both models separately, and the methanol abundance was parameterized. Viscous heating was included due to the high accretion rates of these objects in the disk.
Results. In contrast with low-mass protostars, the presence of a disk does not significantly affect the temperature structure and methanol emission. The shadowing effect of the disk is not as important for high-mass objects, and the disk midplane is hot because of viscous heating, which is effective due to the high accretion rates. The methanol emission is lower for models with high mm opacity dust because the dust attenuation blocks the emission in the envelope and hides it in the disk through continuum oversubtraction, but the disk needs to be large for this to become effective. A minimum disk size of ∼2000-2500 au is needed (at L = 104L) with high mm opacity dust for drop of a factor of about one order of magnitude in the methanol emission compared with the envelope-only models with low mm opacity dust. Consistent with observations of infrared absorption lines toward high-mass protostars, we find a vertical temperature inversion, that is, higher temperatures in the disk midplane than the disk surface, at radii ≲50 au for models with L = 104L and high mm opacity dust as long as the envelope mass is ≳550 M ( = 3.6 × 10–3M yr–1).
Conclusions. The large observed scatter in methanol emission from massive protostars can be mostly explained toward lower-luminosity objects (∼103L) with the envelope-plus-disk models including low and high mm opacity dust. The methanol emission variation toward sources with high luminosities (≳104L) cannot be explained by models with or without a disk with a relatively high gas-phase abundance of methanol. However, the luminosity-to-mass ratios of these objects suggest that they might be associated with hypercompact or ultracompact HII regions. Therefore, the low methanol emission toward the high-luminosity sources can be explained by them hosting an HII region in which methanol is absent.

Abstract Copyright: © The Authors 2023

Journal keyword(s): astrochemistry - stars: massive - stars: protostars - ISM: abundances - HII regions - radiative transfer

Simbad objects: 3

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Number of rows : 3
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
ICRS (J2000)
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
1 RAFGL 4176 Y*O 13 43 01.70352 -62 08 51.2304           ~ 152 0
2 RAFGL 2136 Y*O 18 22 26.52888 -13 30 14.0400           ~ 285 0
3 RAFGL 2591 Y*O 20 29 24.8230 +40 11 19.590           ~ 622 0

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