2023A&A...671A.135K


Query : 2023A&A...671A.135K

2023A&A...671A.135K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 671A, 135 (2023/3-1)

Multi-frequency VLBI observations of maser lines during the 6.7 GHz maser flare in the high-mass young stellar object G24.33+0.14.

KOBAK A., BARTKIEWICZ A., SZYMCZAK M., OLECH M., DURJASZ M., WOLAK P., CHIBUEZE J.O., HIROTA T., EISLOFFEL J., STECKLUM B., SOBOLEV A., BAYANDINA O., OROSZ G., BURNS R.A., KIM K.-T. and VAN DEN HEEVER S.P.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. Recent studies have shown that 6.7 GHz methanol maser flares can be a powerful tool for verifying the mechanisms of maser production and even the specific signatures of accretion rate changes in the early stages of high-mass star formation.
Aims. We characterize the spatial structure and evolution of methanol and water masers during a flare of methanol maser emission at 6.7 GHz in the high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G24.33+0.14.
Methods. Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used to image the 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol and 22.2 GHz water vapor masers at three epochs guided by monitoring the methanol line with the Torun 32m telescope. The 6.7 GHz maser maps were also obtained with the European VLBI Network (EVN) and Long Baseline Array (LBA) during the flare. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data were used to find correlations between the 6.7 GHz maser and infrared (IR) fluxes.
Results. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser cloudlets are distributed over ∼3500 au, and the morphology of most of them is stable although their brightness varies following the course of the total flux density on a timescale of two months. The 12.2 GHz methanol maser cloudlets cover an area an order of magnitude smaller than that of 6.7 GHz emission, and both transitions emerge from the same masing gas. The 22.2 GHz maser cloudlets lie in the central region and show a systematic increase in brightness and moderate changes in size and orientation, together with the velocity drift of the strongest cloudlet during two months of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing period. Time lag estimates imply the propagation of changes in the physical conditions of the masing region with a subluminal speed (∼0.3c). A tight correlation of IR (4.6 μm) and 6.7 GHz flux densities is found, supporting the radiative pumping model. Proper motion analysis does not reveal any signs of expansion or inflow of the methanol cloudlets within ∼6 mas over ∼10 yr. Comparison with the 230 GHz Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) data indicates that the methanol masers are distributed in the inner part of the rotating disk, whereas the 22.2 GHz emission traces the compact inner component of the bipolar outflow or a jet structure.
Conclusions. The maser morphology in the target is remarkably stable over the course of the flare and is similar to the quiescent state, possibly due to less energetic accretion events that can repeat on a timescale of ∼8 yr.

Abstract Copyright: © The Authors 2023

Journal keyword(s): masers - stars: massive - stars: formation - stars: flare - radio lines: ISM

Simbad objects: 10

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Number of rows : 10
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2024
#notes
1 MMB G192.600-00.048 Y*O 06 12 54.0100 +17 59 23.200           ~ 402 0
2 NAME Her B Sy1 16 42 58.80997043 +39 48 36.9939552   16.81 16.59 16.84   ~ 1729 2
3 [BHC2016] MM1 cor 17 20 53.415 -35 46 57.88           ~ 95 0
4 MMB G358.931-00.030 SFR 17 43 10.02 -29 51 45.8           ~ 51 0
5 PMN J1825-0737 Rad 18 25 37.60953880 -07 37 30.0131350           ~ 32 1
6 MSX5C G024.3293+00.1463 Y*O 18 35 08.17416 -07 35 04.7472           ~ 13 0
7 PMN J1835-1115 Rad 18 35 19.57575892 -11 15 59.3120189           ~ 13 1
8 [SHK2000] 18461-0113 Mas 18 48 44.3 -01 11 18           ~ 6 0
9 IRAS 19410+2336 SFR 19 43 11.5 +23 44 06           ~ 156 0
10 [PFG2013] I22198-MM2-S mm 22 21 26.807 +63 51 37.14           ~ 6 0

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