X-ray study of triggered star formation and protostars in IC 1396N.
GETMAN K.V., FEIGELSON E.D., GARMIRE G., BROOS P. and WANG J.
Abstract (from CDS):
The IC 1396N cometary globule (CG) within the large nearby H II region IC 1396 has been observed with the ACIS detector on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We detect 117 X-ray sources, of which ∼50-60 are likely members of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 dispersed throughout the H II region, and 25 are associated with young stars formed within the globule. Infrared photometry (2MASS and Spitzer) shows that the X-ray population is very young: 3 older Class III stars, 16 classical T Tauri stars, and 6 protostars including a Class 0/I system. We infer a total T Tauri population of ∼30 stars in the globule, including the undetected population, with a star formation efficiency of 1%-4%. An elongated source spatial distribution with an age gradient oriented toward the exciting star is discovered in the X-ray population of IC 1396N, supporting similar findings in other cometary globules. The geometric and age distribution is consistent with the radiation-driven implosion (RDI) model for triggered star formation in CGs by H II region shocks. The inferred velocity of the shock front propagating into the globule is ∼0.6 km/s. The large number of X-ray-luminous protostars in the globule suggests either an unusually high ratio of Class I/0 to Class II/III stars or a nonstandard initial mass function favoring higher mass stars by the triggering process. We find that the Chandra source associated with the luminous Class 0/I protostar IRAS 21391+5802 is one of the youngest stars ever detected in the X-ray band. We also establish for the first time that the X-ray absorption in protostars arises from the local infalling envelopes rather than from ambient molecular cloud material.
ISM: H II Regions - ISM: Globules - open clusters and associations: individual (IC 1396) - Stars: Formation - Stars: Pre-Main-Sequence - X-Rays: Stars
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/654/316): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat>