Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 318, 521-534 (1997/2-2)
Line-blanketed model atmospheres for R Coronae Borealis stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon stars.
ASPLUND M., GUSTAFSSON B., KISELMAN D. and ERIKSSON K.
Abstract (from CDS):
We have constructed line-blanketed model atmospheres for the hydrogen-deficient and carbon-rich R Coronae Borealis (RCrB) stars, as well as for the similar hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars and the cool extreme helium (EHe) stars. Improved continuum opacities have been used together with realistic line absorption data for atomic and molecular transitions. The observed dereddened fluxes of R CrB are compared with the calculated model fluxes and found to agree best with a model effective temperature of 6900K, while the infrared flux method gives between 6600 and 6900K, depending on the nature of the flux excess in the J and H bands compared to the model fluxes. The excess may correspond to a recently formed dust cloud close to the star, with a typical temperature around 2000K and a dust mass of ∼10–11M☉. The agreement for the ultraviolet flux distribution is also very satisfactory as seen from IUE spectra of RCrB. Theoretical broad band photometry is presented and effective temperatures of RCrB and HdC stars estimated. The constructed models show a significantly steeper temperature gradient compared to previously existing models as a result of the line opacity. Due to the cool surface and high abundance of carbon, molecular bands of e.g. C2 and CO are visible in the spectra even at as high effective temperatures as 7000K. Furthermore, the high temperatures encountered at depth explain the observed Hei and CII lines for Teff down to ∼7000K. In the inner layers (τRoss > 3) the models show density inversions related to the ionization zone of helium. For certain low gravity models the luminosity exceeds the local Eddington limit and hence gas pressure inversions occur as well, which could be related to the decline events of RCrB stars.
stars: model atmospheres - stars: AGB and post-AGB - stars: variables: R Coronae Borealis - stars: variables: luminous blue variables - radiative transfer - instabilities