Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 338, 176 (2003/January-1)
Unifying B2 radio galaxies with BL Lacertae objects.
HARDCASTLE M.J., WORRALL D.M., BIRKINSHAW M. and CANOSA C.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
In an earlier paper we presented nuclear X-ray flux densities, measured with ROSAT, for the B2 bright sample of nearby low-luminosity radio galaxies. In this paper we construct a nuclear X-ray luminosity function for the B2 radio galaxies, and discuss the consequences of our results for models in which such radio galaxies are the parent population of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. Based on our observations of the B2 sample, we use Monte Carlo techniques to simulate samples of beamed radio galaxies, and use the selection criteria of existing samples of BL Lac objects to compare our simulated results to what is observed. We find that previous analytical results are not applicable since the BL Lac samples are selected on beamed flux density. A simple model in which BL Lacs are the moderately beamed (γ∼ 3) counterparts of radio galaxies, with some random dispersion (∼0.4 decades) in the intrinsic radio-X-ray relationship, can reproduce many of the features of the radio-selected and X-ray-selected BL Lac samples, including their radio and X-ray luminosity functions and the distributions of their radio-to-X-ray spectral indices. In contrast, models in which the X-ray and radio emission have systematically different beaming parameters cannot reproduce important features of the radio-galaxy and BL Lac populations, and recently proposed models in which the radio-to-X-ray spectral index is a function of source luminosity cannot in themselves account for the differences in the slopes of the radio- and X-ray-selected BL Lac luminosity functions. The redshift distribution and number counts of the X-ray-selected Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) sample are well reproduced by our best models, supporting a picture in which these objects are beamed Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies with intrinsic luminosities similar to those of the B2 sample. However, we cannot match the redshift distribution of the radio-selected 1-Jy sample, and it is likely that a population of Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies is responsible for the high-redshift objects in this sample, in agreement with previously reported results on the sample's radio and optical emission-line properties.
galaxies: active - BL Lacertae objects: general - galaxies: jets - X-rays: galaxies
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